Factors related to health-related quality of life in patients with acute coronary syndrome in West Java, Indonesia: A correlational study


health-related quality of life
acute coronary syndrome
functional status

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Imam, H., & Jitpanya, C. (2022). Factors related to health-related quality of life in patients with acute coronary syndrome in West Java, Indonesia: A correlational study. Belitung Nursing Journal, 8(4), 349–356. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1247
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Background: Although acute coronary syndrome impacts patients’ health-related quality of life, a dearth of studies explore this issue in Indonesia. Thus, understanding factors associated with health-related quality of life among patients with acute coronary syndrome is a necessity.

Objective: This study aimed to examine the relationships between age, pain, dyspnea, functional status, self-efficacy, social support, and health-related quality of life in patients with acute coronary syndrome in West Java, Indonesia.

Methods: This study employed a descriptive correlational study involving 186 patients with acute coronary syndrome purposively selected in the outpatient clinics of the top referral public hospital. Data were collected in 2020 using validated instruments: Rose Questionnaire for Angina (RQA), Rose Dyspnea Scale (RDS), Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE), ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI), and MacNew Health-Related Quality of Life. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman-rank correlation.

Results: Overall, the health-related quality of life in patients with acute coronary syndrome was high (Mean = 4.97, SD = 0.92), including in its subscales: emotional (Mean = 4.94, SD = 0.88), physical (Mean = 5.07, SD = 1.12), and social (Mean = 5.05, SD = 1.55) subscales. Significant factors related to health-related quality of life were pain (r = 0.296, p <0.001), functional status (r = 0.601, p <0.001), dyspnea (r = -0.438, p<0.001), and self-efficacy (r = 0.299, p <0.001). Meanwhile, age and social support had no significant relationships with health-related quality of life (p = 0.270, p = 0.059). Interestingly, social support was significantly correlated with the emotional subscale of health-related quality of life (r = 0.156, p = 0.034).

Conclusion: Functional status, pain, and self-efficacy were positively correlated with health-related quality of life, while dyspnea had a negative association. This finding serves as basic information for nurses and other healthcare professionals to consider the related factors identified in this study to improve nursing interventions in order to increase health-related quality of life among patients with acute coronary syndrome.


Supporting Agencies

1) Graduate Scholarship Program for ASEAN Countries, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, and 2) Teaching Assistantship Scholarship, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand


Copyright (c) 2022 Haerul Imam, Chanokporn Jitpanya

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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Declaration of Conflicting Interest

All authors declare no conflict of interest in this study.


The authors acknowledge the Graduate Scholarship Program for ASEAN Countries and the Teaching Assistantship Scholarship, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, for all the funding support. Also, gratitude to the Faculty of Nursing, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, for all valuable support. Sincere appreciation also to Assoc. Prof. Capt. Dr. Yupin Aungsuroch and Assist. Prof. Teera Sindecharak for their insightful comments and suggestions in this study. In addition, the authors also thank the directors, doctors, nurses, research assistant (Rini Yuliarti, S.Kep, Ners), and other staff of Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and Regional Hospital of Majalaya, Indonesia, for their unconditional support, as well as all the experts (Prof. Kusman Ibrahim, PhD, RN; Joko Gunawan, PhD; Cecep Eli Kosasih, PhD; Titis Kurniawan, PhD; Nurlaeci, M.Kep; Noviyah, S.Kep, Ners) who helped in the instruments’ translation and validation.

Authors’ Contributions

All authors contributed equally to this study according to ICMJE authorship criteria, except for data collection by the first author (HI). The second author (CJ) was the thesis advisor of the first author in this study. Furthermore, all authors approved the final version of the article and agreed to be accountable for all stages of the study.

Data Availability

The datasets generated during and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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