Background: Nursing jobs are very complex and stressful, and nurses are demanded to have high competency and soft skills to keep their performance. However, the nursing workload often leads to fatigue, and it will be very challenging for novice nurses. Therefore, they need to be trained in soft skills in order to be able to control their emotion and adapt to the situation. Unfortunately, studies on essential soft skills for novice nurses in Indonesia are scarce; further research on this topic is a necessity.
Objective: This study aimed to explore the perception of senior nurses about the essential soft skills for novice nurses during their work adaptation process.
Methods: This qualitative study used an interpretive phenomenology approach, which was conducted in a private hospital in Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews from ten senior nurses selected using a purposive sampling technique. Data were analyzed using Gadamer’s hermeneutic approach.
Results: Nine essential soft skills were developed for novice nurses during their transition phase from education to practice, including self-control, initiative, caring, self-motivated, hospitality, flexibility, adaptability, analytical skill, and presentation skill.
Conclusion: Findings of this study serve as a basis for developing the soft skills of novice nurses in their clinical practice in hospitals in Indonesia. It is also recommended that soft skills should be included in the nursing education curriculum. However, soft skills are essential for novice nurses to succeed in their adaptation and future career.
Copyright (c) 2021 Ernawati Ernawati, Cicilia Nony Ayuningsih Bratajaya
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Article MetricsAbstract views: 939 | PDF views: 574
ReferencesShow | Hide
Abraham, J., & Scaria, J. (2017). Emotional intelligence: The context for successful nursing leadership: A literature review. Nurse Care Open Acces Journal, 2(6), 160-164. https://doi.org/10.15406/ncoaj.2017.02.00054
Afsar, B., Umrani, W. A., & Khan, A. (2019). The impact of perceived calling on work outcomes in a nursing context: The role of career commitment and living one’s calling. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 24(1), e12154. https://doi.org/10.1111/jabr.12154
Ariani, T. A., & Aini, N. (2018). Nurse caring behavior and satisfaction of inpatient patients on nursing services. Jurnal Keperawatan, 9(1), 58-64. https://doi.org/10.22219/jk.v9i1.4970
Babaei, S., & Taleghani, F. (2019). Compassionate care challenges and barriers in clinical nurses: A qualitative study. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 24(3), 213-219. https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2Fijnmr.IJNMR_100_18
Baljoon, R. A., Banjar, H. E., & Banakhar, M. A. (2018). Nurses’ work motivation and the factors affecting it: A scoping review. International Journal of Nursing & Clinical Practices, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.15344/2394-4978/2018/277
Boswell, C., & Cannon, S. (2014). Introduction to nursing research, incorporating evidence-based practice (3rd ed.). Massachusetts:: Jonnes & Bartlett Learning.
Bratajaya, C. N., & Ernawati, E. (2020a). The soft skills of Millenial generation orientee nurses. Jurnal Keperawatan, 11(1), 10-21. https://doi.org/10.22219/jk.v11i1.10536
Bratajaya, C. N. A., & Ernawati, E. (2020b). Peran mentor dalam membimbing perawat pemula [Role of mentors in guiding junior nurses]. Jurnal Persatuan Perawat Nasional Indonesia (JPPNI), 3(3), 181-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.32419/jppni.v3i3.169
Chiu, K. K., Mahat, N. I., Rashid, B., Razak, N. A., & Omar, H. (2016). Assessing students’ knowledge and soft skills competency in the industrial training programme: The employers’ perspective. Review of European Studies, 8(1), 123-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/res.v8nlp123
Clinque, M. (2016). Lost in translation. Soft skills development in European countries. Tuning Journal, 3(2), 389-427. https://doi.org/10.18543/tjhe-3(2)-2016pp389-427
Dehghani, A. (2020). Factors affecting professional ethics development in students: A qualitative study. Nursing Ethics, 27(2), 461-469. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0969733019845135
Erkus, G., & Dinc, L. (2018). Turkish nurses’ perceptions of professional values. Journal of Professional Nursing, 34(3), 226-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2017.07.011
Fang, W., Zhang, Y., Mei, J., Chai, X., & Fan, X. (2018). Relationships between optimism, educational environment, career adaptability and career motivation in nursing undergraduates: A cross-sectional study. Nurse Education Today, 68, 33-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.05.025
Foster, K., McCloughen, A., Delgado, C., Kefalas, C., & Harkness, E. (2015). Emotional intelligence education in pre-registration nursing programmes: An integrative review. Nurse Education Today, 35(3), 510-517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2014.11.009
Gadamer, H. G. (1989). Truth and method (2nd revised ed.). New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Ghasemi, S. S., Farrokhi, S., Najafi, M., Shojaeimotlagh, V., Bozorgomid, A., Torabi, M., & Yarahmadi, F. (2018). Emotional intelligence and its relationship with demographic characteristics among nursing students. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences, 7(14), 3419-3422. https://doi.org/10.14260/jemds/2018/771
Ha, D. T., & Nuntaboot, K. (2020). Factors influencing competency development of nurses as perceived by stakeholders in Vietnam. Belitung Nursing Journal, 6(4), 103-110. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1119
Hariti, T., & Rejeki, S. (2020). Strengthening soft skills as the character of student nurses through the preceptorship management model. Enfermeria Clinica, 30(Supplement 5), 64-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.11.022
Hartiti, T., & Ernawati. (2016). Gambaran softskill mahasiswa sarjana perawat di Fikkes Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang [Description of bachelor nursing students’ softskills at Fikkes Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang]. Paper presented at the RAKERNAS AIPKEMA 2016. Prosiding Seminar Nasional & Internasional, Semarang, Indonesia.
Hartiti, T., Poddar, S., & Bhaumik, A. (2020). Development transformational leadership model to improve nurses’ soft skills. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, 16(Suppl 10), 113-118.
Ibrahim, H. A.-F., Elgzar, W. T. I., Mohamed, R. E., & Salem, G. M. M. (2016). Relationship between nursing students’ emotional intelligence and their clinical performance during obstetrics and gynaecologic nursing practical training. American Journal of Nursing Science, 5(6), 240-250. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajns.20160506.12
Kaiser, J. A., & Westers, J. B. (2018). Nursing teamwork in a health system: A multisite study. Journal of Nursing Management, 26(5), 555-562. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12582
Kim, H., & Yi, M. (2015). Factors influencing empathy in nursing students in Korea. The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education, 21(2), 237-245. https://doi.org/10.5977/jkasne.2015.21.2.237
Kim, S., Bochatay, N., Relyea-Chew, A., Buttrick, E., Amdahl, C., Kim, L., . . . Fehr, R. (2017). Individual, interpersonal, and organisational factors of healthcare conflict: A scoping review. Journal of interprofessional care, 31(3), 282-290. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820.2016.1272558
Labrague, L. J., McEnroe–Petitte, D. M., Tsaras, K., Cruz, J. P., Colet, P. C., & Gloe, D. S. (2018). Organizational commitment and turnover intention among rural nurses in the Philippines: Implications for nursing management. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 5(4), 403-408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2018.09.001
Lee, D. S. K., Abdullah, K. L., Chinna, K., Subramanian, P., & Bachmann, R. T. (2020). Critical thinking skills of RNs: Exploring demographic determinants. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 51(3), 109-117. https://doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20200216-05
López, M., Jiménez, J. M., Martín-Gil, B., Fernández-Castro, M., Cao, M. J., Frutos, M., & Castro, M. J. (2020). The impact of an educational intervention on nursing students' critical thinking skills: A quasi-experimental study. Nurse Education Today, 85, 104305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2019.104305
Mersin, S., İbrahimoğlu, Ö., Çağlar, M., & Akyol, E. (2020). Compassionate love, burnout and professional commitment in nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 28(1), 72-81. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12892
Minster, A. L. (2020). Essential emotional-social intelligence skills for nursing. (Doctoral Dissertation), Bryan College of Health Sciences, USA. Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/openview/64f01f1730fea0da69611cf128f53266/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=2026366&diss=y
Mizuno, Y., Yamada, Y., Hochi, Y., Takahashi, H., Shoji, N., Aida, H., . . . Mizuno, M. (2017). A study on communication activity and social skills of nursing organization. In J. I. Kantola, T. Barath, S. Nazir, & T. Andre (Eds.), Advances in human factors, business management, training and education (Vol. 498, pp. 561-568). Switzerland: Springer.
Moeller, R. W., & Seehuus, M. (2019). Loneliness as a mediator for college students’ social skills and experiences of depression and anxiety. Journal of Adolescence, 73, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.03.006
Naghneh, M. H. K., Tafreshi, M. Z., Naderi, M., Shakeri, N., Bolourchifard, F., & Goyaghaj, N. S. (2017). The relationship between organizational commitment and nursing care behavior. Electronic Physician, 9(7), 4835-4840. https://dx.doi.org/10.19082%2F4835
Nantsupawat, A., Nantsupawat, R., Kunaviktikul, W., Turale, S., & Poghosyan, L. (2016). Nurse burnout, nurse‐reported quality of care, and patient outcomes in Thai hospitals. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 48(1), 83-90. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12187
Ng, L. K. (2020). The perceived importance of soft (service) skills in nursing care: A research study. Nurse Education Today, 85, 104302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2019.104302
Norwood, S. (2010). Research essentials, foundations for evidence-based practice. New Jersey: Pearson.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research, generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Raeissi, P., Zandian, H., Mirzarahimy, T., Delavari, S., Moghadam, T. Z., & Rahimi, G. (2021). Relationship between communication skills and emotional intelligence among nurses. Nursing Management, 28(3). https://doi.org/10.7748/nm.2019.e1820
Raghubir, A. E. (2018). Emotional intelligence in professional nursing practice: A concept review using Rodgers’s evolutionary analysis approach. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 5(2), 126-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2018.03.004
Rasheed, S. P. (2015). Self-awareness as a therapeutic tool for nurse/client relationship. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 8(1), 211-216.
Regan, S., Wong, C., Laschinger, H. K., Cummings, G., Leiter, M., MacPhee, M., . . . Jeffs, L. (2017). Starting out: Qualitative perspectives of new graduate nurses and nurse leaders on transition to practice. Journal of Nursing Management, 25(4), 246-255. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12456
Sagong, H., & Lee, G. E. (2016). Person-centered care and nursing service quality of nurses in long-term care hospitals. Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing, 27(4), 309-318. https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2016.27.4.309
Sapeni, M. A.-A. R., & Said, S. (2020). The effectiveness of case-based learning in increasing critical thinking of nursing students: A literature review. Enfermeria Clinica, 30, 182-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.07.073
Sasaki, S., Fukada, M., Okuda, R., & Fujihara, Y. (2019). Impact of organization and career commitment on clinical nursing competency. Yonago Acta Medica, 62(2), 221-231. https://doi.org/10.33160/yam.2019.06.007
Seutloadi, K. (2015). Perceptions on the role and importance of soft skills or relevant competencies on the performance of nurse managers in hospitals. (PhD Thesis), University of Southern Queensland, Australia. Retrieved from https://eprints.usq.edu.au/28103/
Son, M. (2018). Influence of self-awareness, other-awareness, and interpersonal relation competence on smartphone and internet addiction in nursing students. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 27(1), 74-84. https://doi.org/10.12934/jkpmhn.2018.27.1.74
Souza, G. C. d., Peduzzi, M., Silva, J. A. M. d., & Carvalho, B. G. (2016). Teamwork in nursing: Restricted to nursing professionals or an interprofessional collaboration? Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 50, 0642-0649. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0080-623420160000500015
Turan, N. (2018). Self-awareness in the nurse-patient relationship. In E. Alexandrova, N. L. Shapekova, B. Ak, & F. Ozcanaslan (Eds.), Health sciences research in the globalizing world (pp. 270-278). Sofia, Bulgaria: St. kliment Ohridski University Press
Younas, A., Rasheed, S. P., Sundus, A., & Inayat, S. (2020). Nurses’ perspectives of self‐awareness in nursing practice: A descriptive qualitative study. Nursing & Health Sciences, 22(2), 398-405. https://doi.org/10.1111/nhs.12671