Evaluation of the integrated model of the rational drug use into the Bachelor of Nursing Science program in Thailand: A mixed-methods study


rational drug use
Bachelor of Nursing Science program
RDU competency

How to Cite

Turner, K., Suwannapong, K., Putthikhan, P., Charoensuk, S., Radabutr, M., Angsirisak, N., Thadakant, S., Vaisurasingha, L., & Theinpichet, S. (2021). Evaluation of the integrated model of the rational drug use into the Bachelor of Nursing Science program in Thailand: A mixed-methods study. Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(6), 485–492. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1762
Google Scholar

Link to Google Scholar

Accepted for publication: 2021-10-22
Peer reviewed: Yes

Related articles in

Search Relations - Article by Author(s)

Share this article on:


Background: Integration of rational drug use (RDU) into a nursing program to increase nurse graduates’ RDU competencies is essential to solving the problem of irrational drug use.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the integrated model of the RDU into the Bachelor of Nursing Science (BNS) program developed by the Thailand Nursing and Midwifery Council (TNMC).

Methods: A mixed-methods study was designed using a sequential explanatory design. The whole population of 3,848 nurse educators and 9,249 nurse graduates from 86 nursing education institutions across Thailand in Academic Year 2018 were recruited for quantitative data collection. Fifty nurse educators selected as representatives of the nursing education institutions were recruited for qualitative data collection. Online questionnaires were sent to collect information regarding the context, input, process, and product relating to the model, while structured focus group guidelines were developed to obtain more details in assessing the model. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis.

Results: The findings showed that the context and policy of utilizing the model to increase nurse graduates’ RDU competencies were well accepted. The nurse educators’ RDU competencies, the input of the model, were rated at a high level. The process of the model was implemented as guided at almost all nursing education institutions. The product of the model, the RDU competencies of the nurse graduates, was reported at a high level.

Conclusion: The model of integrating the RDU into the BNS program developed by the TNMC was well performed and resulted in high RDU competencies of the nurse graduates. This integration model should be published and applied in nursing schools worldwide to enhance RDU competencies of nurse graduates.


Supporting Agencies

Thailand Nursing and Midwifery Council


Copyright (c) 2021 Kamolrat Turner, Kanoklekha Suwannapong, Phawida Putthikhan, Sukjai Charoensuk, Matanee Radabutr, Naruemol Angsirisak, Streerut Thadakant, Laddawon Vaisurasingha, Suntharawadee Theinpichet

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Article Metrics

Total views 1371 [Abstract: 722 | PDF: 648 | XML: 1 ]


Download data is not yet available.

PlumX Metrics


Asiret, G. D., Bagcivan, G., Ozcan, M., Eroksuz, B. B., Akbayrak, N., & Akdemir, N. (2017). Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric assessment of the Turkish version of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 47(4), 1223-1228. http://doi.org/10.3906/sag-1609-11

Aziz, S., Mahmood, M., & Rehman, Z. (2018). Implementation of CIPP model for quality evaluation at school level: A case study. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 5(1), 189-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.22555/joeed.v5i1.1553

Brown, M., Sack, F., & Piper Rodd, C. (2013). Student voice in ‘skills for sustainability’: A missing component from the demand side of Australian Vocational Education and Training. International Journal of Training Research, 11(3), 213-224. https://doi.org/10.5172/ijtr.2013.11.3.213

Chongtrakul, P. (2015). RDU hospital: The pathway to rational drug use. Thai Journal of Pharmacology, 37(1), 48-62.

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2011). The SAGE handbook of qualitative research. California, London, New Delhi and Far East Square: Sage.

Giorgi, A. (1985). Phenomenology and psychological research. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Duquesne University Press.

Health Systems Research Institute and Coordination and Integration Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance. (2017). Thailand national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance 2017-2021. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11228/4807

Intahphuak, S. (2014). Medication errors reduction: Applying nursing process in drug administration [in Thai]. Journal of Nursing Science & Health, 37(4), 139-146.

Jenghua, K., Sangtong, H., Jaiya, N., Jaroenteerawit, W., & Khiewpradang, A. (2019). The use of Potential Inappropriate Medication (PIM) from Thailand criteria among urban community- dwelling elderly: Prevalence, PIMs and factor associated. Thai Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 14(1), 49-63. https://doi.org/10.14456/tbps.2019.5

Kaliisa, R., & Michelle, P. (2019). Mobile learning policy and practice in Africa: Towards inclusive and equitable access to higher education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(6), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.5562

Lungu, M. (2019). Motivation as part of the educational process. Journal Plus Education, 22(1), 140–148.

Melku, L., Wubetu, M., & Dessie, B. (2021). Irrational drug use and its associated factors at Debre Markos Referral Hospital’s outpatient pharmacy in East Gojjam, Northwest Ethiopia. SAGE Open Medicine, 9, 20503121211025146. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F20503121211025146

Nnabuike, E. K., Aneke, M. C., & Otegbulu, R. I. (2016). Curriculum implementation and the teacher: Issues, challenges and the way forward. International Journal in Commerce, IT & Social Sciences, 3(6), 41-48.

Ofori-Asenso, R., & Agyeman, A. A. (2016). Irrational use of medicines—a summary of key concepts. Pharmacy, 4(4), 35. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy4040035

Prastiwi, Y. (2013). Transmitting local cultural knowledge through English as foreign language (EFL) learning as a means of fostering “unity in diversity”. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(3), 507-514. http://dx.doi.org/10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n3p507

Pumtong, S., Suwannaprom, P., Suttajit, S., Puripunyawanich, N., & Kiatying-Angsulee, N. (2020). Irrational antibiotic use and distribution in the Thai Community: A complex situation in need of integrative solution. Journal of Health Science, S72-S81.

Royal Pharmaceutical Society. (2016). A competency framework for all prescribers Retrieved from https://www.rpharms.com/resources/frameworks/prescribers-competency-framework

Samsul, H., Andrian, D., & Kartowagiran, B. (2019). Evaluation model for evaluating vocational skills programs on local content curriculum in Indonesia: Impact of educational system in Indonesia. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 19(82), 45-62. https://doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2019.82.3

Saputra, G. A. S. (2013). Enhancing local wisdom through local content of elementary school in Java, Indonesia. Proceeding of the Global Summit on Education, 614-620.

Seangrung, R., Ahuja, M., Pasutharnchat, K., & Mahawan, R. (2020). Factors influencing non-adherence to opioids in cancer patients: A mixed-methods cross-sectional study. F1000 Research, 9, 1471. https://dx.doi.org/10.12688%2Ff1000research.27725.2

Sulosaari, V., Kajander, S., Hupli, M., Huupponen, R., & Leino-Kilpi, H. (2012). Nurse students' medication competence—an integrative review of the associated factors. Nurse Education Today, 32(4), 399-405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2011.05.016

Thailand Nursing and Midwifery Council. (2018). Conclusion integrating the rational drug use curriculum into the Bachelor of Nursing Science Program. Retrieved from https://www.tnmc.or.th/news/110

Thailand Nursing and Midwifery Council. (2020). Authority and responsibilities. Retrieved from https://www.tnmc.or.th/news/308

Turner, K., Radabutr, M., Laokosin, N., Thadakant, S., Vaisurasingha, L. . (2019). An evaluation of the processes of integrating the rational drug use curriculum into the Bachelor of Nursing Science Program, Academic Year B.E. 2561. Journal of Health Science Research, 13(2), 103-116.

Vatcharavongvan, P., & Puttawanchai, V. (2019). Potentially inappropriate medications among the elderly in primary care in Thailand from three different sets of criteria. Pharmacy Practice (Granada), 17(3). https://dx.doi.org/10.18549/pharmpract.2019.3.1494

Yensabai, J., Torthear, P., Neamsripetch, V., Karndee, A., Pongmesa, T., & Luckanajantachote, P. (2016). Self-care behavior and medication use of Buddhist monks with diabetes mellitus in Phasi Charoen, Bangkok. Value in Health, 19(7), A899. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2016.08.195

Zare, Z. G., Purfarzad, Z., & Adib-Hajbaghery, M. (2013). Medication management skills of nursing students: Comparing the students and their instructors' evaluation in two universities. Nursing and Midwifery Studies, 1(3), 139-145. http://doi.org/10.5812/nms.8555

Readers are able to give us their valuable feedbacks here. The comments will be reviewed by the editors and then published here. Important Note: The "Comments" related to the Galley Proof PDF must NOT be submitted via this form. Authors should submit their comments on their galley proofs only via system