Relation between socio-demographic factors and professionalism among nurses in Saudi Arabia: A comparative analysis


Saudi Arabia

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Alshumrani, H., Albagawi, B., Villareal, S., Areola Jr, B., Albaqawi, H., Algamdi, S., Alerwi, A., Altheban, A. S., & Alanazi, S. (2022). Relation between socio-demographic factors and professionalism among nurses in Saudi Arabia: A comparative analysis. Belitung Nursing Journal, 8(2), 139–146.
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Accepted for publication: 2022-03-12
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Background: Analyzing how nurses handle professionalism in their careers will help all concerned individuals identify areas of concern to develop and enhance further to achieve or maintain a high degree of professionalism.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the level of professionalism among nurses and its differences according to socio-demographic characteristics.

Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional approach was utilized in three significant regions of Saudi Arabia. A simple random sampling technique was employed with 305 respondents, resulting in a 95.9% response rate. A Google Form survey was used to collect the data between January and April 2021.

Results: Nurses perceived themselves highly in professional organization (Mean = 3.94, SD = 0.17), belief in public service (Mean = 3.91, SD = 0.22), belief in self-regulation (Mean = 3.97, SD = 0.08), sense of calling (Mean = 4.01, SD = 0.13), and belief in autonomy (Mean = 3.71, SD = 0.15). There was no significant difference between gender and professional organization, belief in public service, self-regulation, or belief in autonomy. Still, there was a significant difference in belief in public service (t = 2.794; p = 0.006) and sense of calling (t = 4.290; p = 0.001). As to age, only belief in self-regulation was significant (t = 5.984; p = 0.003). Moreover, the educational qualifications reached an insignificant difference in professionalism. Conversely, the type of facility has been found to have reached significant differences with a professional organization (F = 3.057; p = 0.029), belief in public service (F = 4.130; p = 0.007), beliefs in regulation (F = 3.452; p = 0.017), sense of calling (F = 3.211; p = 0.023), and belief in autonomy (F = 5.995; p = 0.001). Lastly, the current position found no significant difference in professionalism.

Conclusion: Nurses in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia perceived themselves as highly professional, and male nurses were found to have a sense of calling more than their female counterparts. Age, educational qualification, and current position had no significant difference in professionalism. Conversely, the type of facility had a significant difference with the belief in autonomy. These findings support and sustain the role of nurses in this 21st-century health care that is significantly needed to provide the most quality care.


Copyright (c) 2022 Hussein Alshumrani, Bander Albagawi, Sandro Villareal, Benito Areola Jr, Hamdan Albaqawi, Saleh Algamdi, Abdulrahman Alerwi, Ahmed Saad Altheban, Seham Alanazi

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors declare that there are no competing interests.


The authors are indebted to the hospital authorities to pursue data gathering, especially to the respondents who participated, and to the University of Hail Ethical Board for their approval.

Authors’ Contributions

HA, BA, HA, and SA have made substantial contributions to the conception, design, and acquisition of ethical approval. SV and BA have been involved in analyzing and interpreting data and drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content and revising the draft. SA, AE, AA, and AS have given final approval to the version to be published. Finally, all authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Data Availability

Data is available upon request.


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