Prevalence, severity, and self-management of depressive mood among community-dwelling people with spinal cord injury in Nepal


depressive mood
spinal cord injury

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Baniya, M., Kitrungrote, L., & Damkliang, J. (2022). Prevalence, severity, and self-management of depressive mood among community-dwelling people with spinal cord injury in Nepal. Belitung Nursing Journal, 8(2), 101–107.
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Accepted for publication: 2022-03-10
Peer reviewed: Yes

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Background: Depression is a common psychological condition after spinal cord injury. There are increased incidences of self-harm, suicidal behavior, and lower quality of life among people with spinal cord injury and depression. However, self-management of depressive symptoms in the community is less explored.

Objective: This study aimed to examine the prevalence, severity, and self-management of depressive mood in community-dwelling people with spinal cord injury.

Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in 2019 among 115 people with spinal cord injury discharged from three health centers and living in the 13 districts of Bagmati Province. Participants were selected using stratified random sampling. Questionnaires were related to demographics, health and environment, depressive mood, and self-management. Descriptive statistics and quantitative content analysis were used to analyze the data.

Results: Ninety-seven (84.3%) people with spinal cord injury had a depressive mood. Of these, 60.8% had moderate to severe depressive moods. They mainly used the internet and social media, shared feelings with family members, and practiced Hindu religious activities for depressive mood management because of the physical barriers to accessing a healthcare facility and easiness to use of non-pharmacological methods. Nearly half of participants who used sharing of feelings felt their depressive mood disappeared when they often used the method.

Conclusion: Depressive mood following initial hospitalization is highly prevalent among people with spinal cord injury in Nepal, most of whom live in rural settings. Therefore, nurses and other health professionals should provide psychoeducation for this population and their family members to better address mental health problems. Facilitating pathways for those in rural areas to engage in social activities and timely treatment access may improve depressive mood. Nurses and other rehabilitation professionals can use social media to assess depressive moods and deliver management approaches in the community.

Supporting Agencies

Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand


Copyright (c) 2022 Mandira Baniya, Luppana Kitrungrote, Jintana Damkliang

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


The authors express gratitude to the Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand, for partially funding this study, Spinal Injury Rehabilitation Center, National Trauma Center, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, and all participants who agreed to take part in this study.

Authors’ Contributions

MB analyzed the data, wrote and revised the manuscript. LK designed the study, analyzed the data, wrote and revised the manuscript. JD designed the study and wrote the manuscript. All authors agreed with the content of the manuscript for publication and gave final approval of the version to be published.

Data Availability

The datasets generated and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due to ethical restrictions but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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