The mechanism of anger and negative affectivity on the occurrence of deviant workplace behavior: An empirical evidence among Malaysian nurses in public hospitals


negative affectivity
deviant workplace behavior

How to Cite

Mansor, M., Ibrahim, R. M., Afthanorhan, A., & Salleh, A. M. M. (2022). The mechanism of anger and negative affectivity on the occurrence of deviant workplace behavior: An empirical evidence among Malaysian nurses in public hospitals. Belitung Nursing Journal, 8(2), 115–123.
Share |


Background: Employees’ work experience significantly impacts their cognition and workplace actions. Anger and negative affectivity are two personality traits that have been linked to workplace deviant behavior conduct.

Objective: This study aimed to empirically analyze the deviant workplace behavior and its antecedents among Malaysian nurses in public hospitals.

Methods: A cross-sectional design was employed in this study. The survey questionnaires were distributed proportionately to staff nurses in six government hospitals in 2020, with a total of 387 nurses selected using a simple random sampling. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used for data analysis.

Results: Trait anger triggered deviant workplace behavior in Malaysian nurses, thus supporting the argument that the personality trait could increase deviant behavior (β = 0.245, p = 0.000). At the same time, there was no evidence that negative affectivity could influence deviant behavior in the workplace among nurses in selected public hospitals in Malaysia (β = 0.074, p = 0.064).

Conclusion: The Malaysian nurses had positive affectivity, related to positive emotions like happiness, work interest, and attentiveness. On the other hand, the nurses were suffering from high levels of emotional tiredness. Further research should highlight a deeper understanding of Malaysian nurses’ work experiences and workplace stress affecting their physical and mental health.


Copyright (c) 2022 Maslina Mansor, Rashidah Mohd Ibrahim, Asyraf Afthanorhan, Ahmad Munir Mohd Salleh

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Article Metrics

Abstract views: 131 | PDF views: 131


Download data is not yet available.

PlumX Metrics

Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors have no conflict of interests to declare.


The authors would like to acknowledge and thank all anonymous reviewers.

Authors’ Contributions

MM: abstract, introduction, theoretical and conceptual framework, discussion, and conclusion. RI: objectives, literature review, and methodology. AA: statistical analysis. AMMS: participated in data collection and logistics. All authors contributed to the article and approved the final version to be published.

Data Availability

The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


Show | Hide

Abd Majid, N., Zainol, F. A., Daud, W. N. W., & Afthanorhan, A. (2019). Cooperative entrepreneurship in malaysian secondary schools: A review of current practices. The Journal of Social Sciences Research, 5(3), 812-818.

Adnan, A. A. (2012). Gelagat pengguna Islam: Satu disiplin atau sub-disiplin? [Islamic Consumer Behavior: A Discipline or Sub-discipline?]. Jurnal Pengurusan, 35, 139-149.

Afthanorhan, A., & Aimran, N. (2020). A prospective study of dengue infection in Malaysia: A structural equation modeling approach. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal, 7(3), 161-169.

Afthanorhan, A., Awang, Z., Abd Majid, N., Foziah, H., Ismail, I., Al Halbusi, H., & Tehseen, S. (2021). Gain more insight from common latent factor in structural equation modeling. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1793, 012030.

Aimran, A. N., Ahmad, S., Afthanorhan, A., & Awang, Z. (2017). The assessment of the performance of covariance-based structural equation modeling and partial least square path modeling. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1842, 030001.

Ambrose, M. L., Schminke, M., & Mayer, D. M. (2013). Trickle-down effects of supervisor perceptions of interactional justice: A moderated mediation approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(4), 678-689.

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 27-51.

Batz, C., & Tay, L. (2018). Gender differences in subjective well-being. Salt Lake City, UT: DEF Publishers.

Bennett, R. J., & Robinson, S. L. (2003). The past, present, and future of workplace deviance research. In J. Greenberg (Ed.), Organizational behavior: The state of the science (pp. 247–281). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Caruso, R., Fida, R., Sili, A., & Arrigoni, C. (2016). Towards an integrated model of nursing competence: An overview of the literature reviews and concept analysis. Professioni Infermieristiche, 69(1).

Dalila, D., Latif, H., Jaafar, N., Aziz, I., & Afthanorhan, A. (2020). The mediating effect of personal values on the relationships between attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and intention to use. Management Science Letters, 10(1), 153-162.

Das, G., & Avci, I. A. (2015). The effect of anger management levels and communication skills of Emergency Department staff on being exposed to violence. Medicinski Glasnik (Zenica), 12(1), 99-104.

Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM). (2018). Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Portal. Retrieved 10 March 2021 from

DeWall, C. N., Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2011). The general aggression model: Theoretical extensions to violence. Psychology of Violence, 1(3), 245-258.

Evermann, J., & Tate, M. (2016). Assessing the predictive performance of structural equation model estimators. Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 4565-4582.

Fida, R., Tramontano, C., Paciello, M., Kangasniemi, M., Sili, A., Bobbio, A., & Barbaranelli, C. (2016). Nurse moral disengagement. Nursing Ethics, 23(5), 547-564.

Fornés-Vives, J., Frias-Navarro, D., García-Banda, G., & Pascual-Soler, M. (2019). The role of neuroticism in predicting psychological harassment in nursing: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(5), 889.

Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597-607.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., & Babin, B. J. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). London: Pearson Education.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2021). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). New York: SAGE Publications.

Hair, J. F., Page, M., & Brunsveld, N. (2019). Essentials of business research methods (4th ed.). New York: Routledge.

Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Gudergan, S. P. (2017). Advanced issues in partial least squares structural equation modeling. California: Sage publications.

Howald, N., Lortie, B., Gallagher, C., & Albert, M. A. (2018). Preventing and deterring organizational deviance. Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4(1), 23-34.

Jahantigh, M., Zare, S., & Shahrakipour, M. (2016). The survey of the relationship between ethical climate and ethical behavior in nurses. Der Pharma Chemica, 8(3), 189-193.

Koopman, J., Conway, J. M., Dimotakis, N., Tepper, B. J., Lee, Y. E., Rogelberg, S. G., & Lount Jr, R. B. (2021). Does CWB repair negative affective states, or generate them? Examining the moderating role of trait empathy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(10), 1493-1516.

Lan, J., Mao, Y., Peng, K. Z., & Wang, Y. (2021). The combined effects of positive and negative affect on job satisfaction and counterproductive work behavior. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 1-19.

Liang, L. H., Brown, D. J., Lian, H., Hanig, S., Ferris, D. L., & Keeping, L. M. (2018). Righting a wrong: Retaliation on a voodoo doll symbolizing an abusive supervisor restores justice. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(4), 443-456.

Low, Y. M., Sambasivan, M., & Ho, J. A. (2021). Impact of abusive supervision on counterproductive work behaviors of nurses. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 59(2), 250-278.

Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., Norman, S. M., & Combs, G. M. (2006). Psychological capital development: Toward a micro‐intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(3), 387-393.

Malaysian Ministry of Health. (2020). Ministry of Health Malaysia portal. Retrieved 26 June 2021 from

McIntosh, C. N., Edwards, J. R., & Antonakis, J. (2014). Reflections on partial least squares path modeling. Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 210-251.

Piecuch, J., & Wojciechowska, P. (2019). An impact of anger expression on organizational behavior–a literature review. Przedsiębiorczość i Zarządzanie, 6(3), 133-144.

Rahim, A. R. A., Shabudin, A., & Nasurdin, A. M. (2012). Effects of job characteristics on counterproductive work behavior among production employees: Malaysian experience. International Journal of Business and Development Studies, 4(1), 123-145.

Rönkkö, M., & Evermann, J. (2013). A critical examination of common beliefs about partial least squares path modeling. Organizational Research Methods, 16(3), 425-448.

Roopa, D. N., Nanjundeswaraswamy, T. S., & Swamy, D. R. (2016). An exploratory study on counterproductive work behaviors of nurses. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research (IJEMR), 6(3), 685-692.

Runge, J. M., Lang, J. W. B., Zettler, I., & Lievens, F. (2020). Predicting counterproductive work behavior: Do implicit motives have incremental validity beyond explicit traits? Journal of Research in Personality, 89, 104019.

Sarwar, A., Irshad, M., Zhong, J. Y., Sarwar, S., & Pasha, R. (2020). Effects of social undermining in families on deviant workplace behaviours in Pakistani nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 28(4), 938-947.

Sarwar, A., Naseer, S., & Zhong, J. Y. (2020). Effects of bullying on job insecurity and deviant behaviors in nurses: Roles of resilience and support. Journal of Nursing Management, 28(2), 267-276.

Shazwani, I. (2017). Health Ministry gets 7,000 complaints, spends RM20mil on compensation annually. New Straits Times.

Sili, A., Fida, R., Zaghini, F., Tramontano, C., & Paciello, M. (2014). Counterproductive behaviors and moral disengagement of nurses as potential consequences of stress-related work: Validity and reliability of measurement scales. La Medicina Del Lavoro, 105(5), 382-394.

Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences (Vol. 3). California: Sage.

Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2005). The stressor-emotion model of counterproductive work behavior. In S. Fox & P. E. Spector (Eds.), Counterproductive work behavior: Investigations of actors and targets American Psychological Association.

Spielberger, C. D. (1988). Manual for the state-trait anger expression scale (STAXI). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Spielberger, C. D. (2010). State‐Trait anger expression inventory. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology.

Spielberger, C. D., Sydeman, S. J., Owen, A. E., & Marsh, B. J. (1999). Measuring anxiety and anger with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment (pp. 993–1021). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Stimpfel, A. W., Sloane, D. M., & Aiken, L. H. (2012). The longer the shifts for hospital nurses, the higher the levels of burnout and patient dissatisfaction. Health Affairs, 31(11), 2501-2509.

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070.

Westland, J. C. (2010). Lower bounds on sample size in structural equation modeling. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 9(6), 476-487.

Wiernik, B. M., & Ones, D. S. (2018). Ethical employee behaviors in the consensus taxonomy of counterproductive work behaviors. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 26(1), 36-48.

Wong, C. A., Spence Laschinger, H. K., & Cummings, G. G. (2010). Authentic leadership and nurses' voice behaviour and perceptions of care quality. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(8), 889-900.

Yang, J., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2009). The relations of daily counterproductive workplace behavior with emotions, situational antecedents, and personality moderators: A diary study in Hong Kong. Personnel Psychology, 62(2), 259-295.

Zaghini, F., Fida, R., Caruso, R., Kangasniemi, M., & Sili, A. (2016). What is behind counterproductive work behaviors in the nursing profession? A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Research & Bioethics, 7(4), 1000277.

Zainuddin, A. (2019). Cases on medical negligence on the rise, Health Ministry’s data shows. The Malaysian Reserve.

Zhang, Y., Crant, J. M., & Weng, Q. (2019). Role stressors and counterproductive work behavior: The role of negative affect and proactive personality. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 27(3), 267-279.

Zhao, H., & Xia, Q. (2019). Nurses’ negative affective states, moral disengagement, and knowledge hiding: The moderating role of ethical leadership. Journal of Nursing Management, 27(2), 357-370.

Zhou, Z. E., Eatough, E. M., & Wald, D. R. (2018). Feeling insulted? Examining end‐of‐work anger as a mediator in the relationship between daily illegitimate tasks and next‐day CWB. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(8), 911-921.

Zolkefli, Y. (2021). Nursing ethics education in Brunei Darussalam–Where are we today? Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(1), 55-56.