Social environment support to overcome loneliness among older adults: A scoping review

Supplementary Files

Supplementary File


social environment
social support

How to Cite

Resna, R. W., Widianti, W., Nofiantoro, W., Iskandar, R., Ashbahna, D. M., Royani, R., & Susilawati, S. (2022). Social environment support to overcome loneliness among older adults: A scoping review. Belitung Nursing Journal, 8(3), 197–203.
Google Scholar

Link to Google Scholar

Accepted for publication: 2022-06-07
Peer reviewed: Yes

Related articles in

Search Relations - Article by Author(s)

Share this article on:


Background: Loneliness is a problem experienced by most older adults due to internal and external factors. This condition may lead to various physical and psychological health problems, including depression, sleep disturbances, stress, and suicidal ideation. Therefore, exploring social environment support to reduce loneliness is a necessity.

Objective: This study aimed to identify various kinds of social support to overcome loneliness in older adults.

Methods: A scoping review was performed on studies retrieved from Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed, and Google Scholar from 2012 until early 2022. Data were analyzed according to Arksey and O’Malley’s scoping review guideline.

Results: Ten studies were systematically selected from 2,410 articles. The analysis indicated that the social environment support, including family support (affection, attention, emotional, motivation, and financial support), friends (peer group, partnership, advice, and appreciation), neighbors (work around the house, society involvement, and emergency), and government support (healthcare facilities and community programs), contribute to loneliness in older adults.

Conclusion: The social environment support from families, friends, neighbors, and government may potentially help older adults to reduce their loneliness but need further validation. The variables included in each component also need construct exploration. However, the study findings may serve as basic knowledge for nurses to provide interventions to prevent and reduce loneliness among older adults.


Copyright (c) 2022 Riksa Wibawa Resna, Widianti Widianti, Wahyu Nofiantoro, Rachmayanti Iskandar, Dwi Meilina Ashbahna, Royani, Susi Susilawati

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Article Metrics

Total views 1020 [Abstract: 524 | PDF: 489 | XML: 7 | Supplementary File: 0 ]


Download data is not yet available.

PlumX Metrics

Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest in this study.


This research did not receive a specific grant from any funding agency.


The authors would like to thank those who provided support and motivation in the process of preparing this article. This research received full support from the School of Health Science Banten in an effort to develop knowledge, especially in the field of nursing.

Authors’ Contributions

W, RI, and DMA made substantial contributions to the conception and drafting of the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content. W, SS, WN, and R drafted the work or revised it critically for important intellectual content. RWR supervised and contributed to all stages. All authors gave final approval of the version to be published and agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Data Availability

All data generated and analyzed in this study were included in this published article. In addition, the search strategy can be viewed in the supplementary file.


Arksey, H., & O'Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19-32.

Berg-Weger, M., & Morley, J. E. (2020). Loneliness in old age: An unaddressed health problem. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 24, 243-245.

Chen, L., Alston, M., & Guo, W. (2019). The influence of social support on loneliness and depression among older elderly people in China: Coping styles as mediators. Journal of Community Psychology, 47(5), 1235-1245.

Chen, Y., Hicks, A., & While, A. E. (2014). Loneliness and social support of older people in China: A systematic literature review. Health & Social Care in the Community, 22(2), 113-123.

Czaja, S., Moxley, J., & Rogers, W. A. (2021). Social support, isolation, loneliness, and health among older adults in the PRISM randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 728658.

Elsayed, E. B. M., El-Etreby, R. R., & Ibrahim, A. A.-W. (2019). Relationship between social support, loneliness, and depression among elderly people. International Journal of Nursing Didactics, 9(01), 39-47.

Eskimez, Z., Demirci, P. Y., TosunOz, I. K., Oztunç, G., & Kumas, G. (2019). Loneliness and social support level of elderly people living in nursing homes. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 12(1), 465-474.

Feliciano, A., Feliciano, E., Palompon, D., & Gonzales, F. (2022). Acceptance Theory of Family Caregiving. Belitung Nursing Journal, 8(2), 86-92.

Feliciano, E., Feliciano, A., Palompon, D., & Boshra, A. (2022). Aging-related Resiliency Theory Development. Belitung Nursing Journal, 8(1), 4-10.

Haddaway, N. R., McGuinness, L. A., & Pritchard, C. C. (2021). PRISMA2020: R package and ShinyApp for producing PRISMA 2020 compliant flow diagrams. Zenodo.

Liu, L., Gou, Z., & Zuo, J. (2016). Social support mediates loneliness and depression in elderly people. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(5), 750-758.

Mulyadi, A., & Juanita. (2016). Gambaran faktor – faktor yang mempengaruhi kesepian pada lansia di Aceh [Description of factors influencing loneliness in elderly in Aceh]. Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Fakultas Keperawatan, 1(1), 1-9.

Nguyen, A. W., Chatters, L. M., Taylor, R. J., & Mouzon, D. M. (2016). Social support from family and friends and subjective well-being of older African Americans. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(3), 959-979.

Ningsih, R. W., & Setyowati, S. (2020). Hubungan tingkat kesepian dengan kualitas hidup pada lansia di posyandu lansia Dusun Karet Yogyakarta [The relationship between the level of loneliness and the quality of life of the elderly at the Posyandu for the elderly, Dusun Karet, Yogyakarta]. Jurnal Keperawatan AKPER YKY Yogyakarta, 12(2), 80-87.

Niu, L., Jia, C., Ma, Z., Wang, G., Sun, B., Zhang, D., & Zhou, L. (2020). Loneliness, hopelessness and suicide in later life: A case–control psychological autopsy study in rural China. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 29, E119.

Oktavianti, A., & Setyowati, S. (2020). Interaksi sosial berhubungan dengan kualitas hidup lansia [Social interaction is related to the quality of life of the elderly]. Jurnal Keperawatan Terpadu (Integrated Nursing Journal), 2(2), 120-129.

Padmiati, E., & Diyanayati, K. (2015). Family based aged’s social service. Jurnal Penelitian Kesejahteraan Sosial, 14(3), 329-342.

Prayogi, B. (2016). Peer group support untuk menurunkan tingkat depresi pada lansia di UPT PSLU Blitar [Peer group support to reduce depression levels in the elderly at UPT PSLU Blitar]. Jurnal Ners dan Kebidanan (Journal of Ners and Midwifery), 3(3), 253-256.

Putri, S. T., & Andriyani, S. (2018). Needs and problems of Posbindu program: Community health volunteers perspective. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 288, 012139.

Sadang, J. M., & Palompon, D. R. (2021). The development of Need–Threat Internal Resiliency Theory in COVID-19 crisis utilizing deductive axiomatic approach. Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(2), 72-77.

Schnittger, R. I. B., Wherton, J., Prendergast, D., & Lawlor, B. A. (2012). Risk factors and mediating pathways of loneliness and social support in community-dwelling older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 16(3), 335-346.

Seifert, A., & König, R. (2019). Help from and help to neighbors among older adults in Europe. Frontiers in Sociology, 4, 46.

Soewignjo, P., Irawan, E., Al Fatih, H., Saputri, U., & Saputra, A. (2020). Hubungan dukungan sosial teman sebaya dengan kualitas hidup lansia di Panti Sosial Rehabilitasi Lanjut Usia Ciparay [The relationship between peer social support and the quality of life of the elderly at the Ciparay Elderly Rehabilitation Social Institution]. Jurnal Keperawatan BSI, 8(2), 268-277.

Sutinah, S. (2020). Comparison of the effects of reminiscence therapy alone and in combination with psychoeducation therapy on depression level of elderly in Indonesia: A quasi-experimental study. Belitung Nursing Journal, 6(1), 1-7.

Syadiyah, H., Nursalam, N., Mahmudah, M., & Wicaksono, W. P. (2020). Relationship between caring nurses and elderly loneliness. Journal of Public Health Research, 9(2), 1829.

Tang, S., Yang, T., Ye, C., Liu, M., Gong, Y., Yao, L., Xu, Y., & Bai, Y. (2022). Research on grandchild care and depression of Chinese older adults based on CHARLS2018: The mediating role of intergenerational support from children. BMC Public Health, 22(1), 1-14.

Teh, J. K. L., Tey, N. P., & Ng, S. T. (2014). Family support and loneliness among older persons in multiethnic Malaysia. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 654382

Theeke, L. A., Goins, R. T., Moore, J., & Campbell, H. (2012). Loneliness, depression, social support, and quality of life in older chronically ill Appalachians. The Journal of Psychology, 146(1-2), 155-171.

Tian, Q. (2016). Intergeneration social support affects the subjective well-being of the elderly: Mediator roles of self-esteem and loneliness. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(6), 1137-1144.

Valtorta, N., & Hanratty, B. (2012). Loneliness, isolation and the health of older adults: Do we need a new research agenda? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 105(12), 518-522.

Wong, A., Chau, A. K. C., Fang, Y., & Woo, J. (2017). Illuminating the psychological experience of elderly loneliness from a societal perspective: A qualitative study of alienation between older people and society. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(7), 824.

Zhao, X., Zhang, D., Wu, M., Yang, Y., Xie, H., Li, Y., Jia, J., & Su, Y. (2018). Loneliness and depression symptoms among the elderly in nursing homes: A moderated mediation model of resilience and social support. Psychiatry Research, 268, 143-151.

Readers are able to give us their valuable feedbacks here. The comments will be reviewed by the editors and then published here. Important Note: The "Comments" related to the Galley Proof PDF must NOT be submitted via this form. Authors should submit their comments on their galley proofs only via system