Translation, adaptation, and validation of the Filipino version of the Caring Behaviors Inventory

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cultural issues
nurse-patient interaction
Caring Behaviors Inventory
instrument validation

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Tamayo, R. L., Tating, D. L. R., Gilo, E. L., Mugol, H. K., & Laureta, K. G. (2022). Translation, adaptation, and validation of the Filipino version of the Caring Behaviors Inventory. Belitung Nursing Journal, 8(4), 357–364.
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Background: The way patients perceive nurses’ caring behaviors can potentially impact patient outcomes and satisfaction. Studies have revealed incongruence between nurses’ and patients’ perceptions with regard to which behaviors are considered caring.

Objective: This study aimed to conduct a cross-cultural validation and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Caring Behaviors Inventory (CBI-16), a self-report questionnaire, from English to Filipino.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design involving forward and back-translation with bilingual translators, expert validation, and a survey in a sample of patients and nurses was used. The psychometric evaluation used a sample of 142 staff nurses and 180 hospitalized patients. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency reliability, and inferential statistics were used for data analysis.

Results: The Filipino version of the CBI-16 (CBI-16-FIL) had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.95) and a unidimensional factor structure (accounted for 85% of total variance). The CBI-16-FIL was found to be a valid, reliable, and unidimensional tool to measure the perceptions of nurse caring behaviors in the Philippines.

Conclusion: The CBI-16-FIL can be used to measure perceptions of nurse caring behaviors. There is a need for further studies involving other cultures, dyadic samples of nurses and patients, and larger sample sizes.


Copyright (c) 2022 Reiner Lorenzo Tamayo, Dan Louie Renz Tating, Ericka Louise Gilo, Hannah Kristine Mugol, Karen Grace Laureta

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors declare that they do not have conflicts of interest in this study.




The authors would like to acknowledge the data collection support provided by Jahzeel Mae Huyo, Bradley Nabong, and Neil Roy Rosales.

Authors’ Contributions

RJT and RPT led the conceptualization and design of the study. All co-authors contributed to the writing of the study protocol and data collection. RJT led data processing while RPT led the data analysis. All co-authors contributed to the writing and review of the final manuscript. All agreed with the final version of the article to be published.

Data Availability

The datasets generated during and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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