Barriers to reporting postpartum hemorrhage at different levels of healthcare facilities in Nigeria: A qualitative study


maternal mortality
postpartum hemorrhage
maternal death

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Mohammed, S., Khuan, L., Durai, R. P. R., Ismail, I. Z. B., & Garba, S. N. (2022). Barriers to reporting postpartum hemorrhage at different levels of healthcare facilities in Nigeria: A qualitative study. Belitung Nursing Journal, 8(6), 538–545.
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Background: Maternal mortality reduction remains a world health priority. One of the causes of maternal death is bleeding after childbirth. However, little is known regarding barriers to reporting for postpartum hemorrhage care among postnatal women in Nigeria.

Objective: This research aimed to understand the perceived barriers to reporting postpartum hemorrhage care experienced by women and healthcare workers in Birnin Kebbi, North west-Nigeria.

Methods: Qualitative case research was employed in this study with face-to-face interviews among ten postnatal women who experienced bleeding and six healthcare workers. Data were collected from September to November 2021. The interviews were all audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. NVivo Pro Version 12 was applied to organize further and manage the data.

Results: Six themes were developed: (1) knowledge deficit, (2) poor attitudes, behaviors, and performances, (3) low socioeconomic status, (4) lack of healthcare personnel, (5) cultural norms, and (6) lack of access to healthcare facilities.

Conclusion: The study findings might serve as input for healthcare policymakers and healthcare workers to improve health and reduce maternal mortality. Enhancing knowledge and awareness about reporting process is necessary to improve reporting for postpartum hemorrhage care among women. Training and continuous professional development of health care workers are also highly suggested to enhance the quality of care.


Copyright (c) 2022 Sirajo Mohammed, Lee Khuan, Ruth Packiavathy Rajen Durai, Irmi Zarina Binti Ismail, Saleh Ngaski Garba

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and publication of this article.


All authors appreciate the women who participated in the present study for sharing their experiences.

Authors’ Contributions

All authors had notable contributions during this project, including the study aims, formulation and finalization of the methodology and design, data gathering, analysis, and interpretation of the results. SM was responsible for the proposal development, ethical considerations, data collection, initial data analysis, and subsequent manuscript drafts. LK, RP, IZ, and SNG assisted with research proposal development, data analysis, and drafting and refining the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript for publication.

Data Availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.


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