Self-concept among Indonesian adolescents in coastal areas: A cross-sectional study


coastal area

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Sarfika, R., Saifudin, I. M. M. Y., & Oktavianto, E. (2023). Self-concept among Indonesian adolescents in coastal areas: A cross-sectional study. Belitung Nursing Journal, 9(3), 262–270.
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Accepted for publication: 2023-05-23
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Background: Adolescence is a transitional phase from childhood to adulthood, characterized by various biological, psychological, and social changes. Adolescents living in coastal regions are exposed to social-environmental risk factors that can affect their emotional wellbeing, primarily due to the demanding and unpredictable nature of coastal communities. These challenging and volatile circumstances can have a negative impact on adolescents’ emotions, making them more vulnerable to mental and emotional disorders.

Objective: This study aimed to examine the self-concept and its differences according to sociodemographic factors among adolescents residing in coastal areas of Indonesia.

Methods: A cross-sectional design was employed for this study, which involved 644 adolescents living in coastal regions of Indonesia, specifically in the West Sumatra and Bali provinces. The Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS) 2nd Edition Short Form was used to assess self-concept from August to September 2022. Descriptive statistics, Independent-t-test, and One-way ANOVA were utilized for data analysis.

Results: The findings revealed that adolescents in coastal areas had a high level of self-concept. A statistically significant difference was discovered in the overall self-concept according to gender (p = 0.002). Similarly, a significant difference was observed in the physical domain based on class level (p = 0.019). Regarding the personal domain, significant differences were identified according to age (p = 0.030), class level (p = 0.030), parent's marital status (p = 0.030), father's education (p = 0.05), and family income (p = 0.01). Furthermore, in the family domain, significant differences were found based on parents’ marital status (p <0.001) and adolescents’ residence status (p = 0.002). Additionally, a significant difference in the academic domain was observed with respect to gender (p = 0.001). However, no significant differences were noted in the moral ethics and social domains across all sociodemographic variables (p >0.05).

Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for attention from various stakeholders, including mental health nurses, to prioritize interventions to promote positive self-concept among adolescents, consider sociodemographic factors that influence self-concept, and address areas of dissatisfaction such as moral behavior and academic/work efficiency. Incorporating family support and nurturing positive parent-child relationships are also important for fostering a healthy self-concept in adolescents.

Supporting Agencies

Research and Community Service Center Fund of the Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia (grant number 360/KPT/R/PTN-BH/UNAND/2022)


Copyright (c) 2023 Rika Sarfika, I Made Moh. Yanuar Saifudin, Eka Oktavianto

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors affirm that there were no financial or commercial conflicts of interest throughout this study and no competing interests with the funders.


This study was supported by the Research and Community Service Center Fund of the Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia (grant number 360/KPT/R/PTN-BH/UNAND/2022).


The authors thank the participants for their interest and generous participation in this study. The authors would also thank the Research and Community Service Centre of Universitas Andalas and the Faculty of Nursing for the support and facilities provided. The authors are also grateful to the teachers and the school staff who helped distribute and administer questionnaires and to the Head Teacher and the Director of the Padang Education Authority, who agreed to collaborate with the study. Finally, the authors would also like to express their appreciation to the Office of Research and Publication (ORP) Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, for assisting with the English language editing of the manuscript.

Authors’ Contributions

All authors contributed equally in this study in substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, analysis or interpretation of data for the work, drafting of the work, and final approval of the version to be published.

Data Availability

The datasets generated during and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Declaration of Use of AI in Scientific Writing

Nothing to disclose.


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