Exploring men’s health in medium and high complexity care in Brazil: A deductive thematic analysis of social determinants


social determinants of health
right to health
life style
health inequities
social support

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de Almeida, M. S., Carneiro, B. R., Santos, A. R. O., da Silva Pires, C. G., Santos, F. L., de Sousa, A. F. L., de Sousa, A. R., Pereira, Álvaro, de Oliveira, L. B., Carneiro, L. M., & Mendes, I. A. C. (2024). Exploring men’s health in medium and high complexity care in Brazil: A deductive thematic analysis of social determinants. Belitung Nursing Journal, 10(1), 96–104. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.3008
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Accepted for publication: 2023-12-28
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Background: Men’s health is influenced by a complex interplay of social, economic, and cultural determinants. Understanding how these aspects affect the health of adult cisgender men in medium and high-complexity healthcare settings is essential for improving healthcare services and promoting better health outcomes.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the health status of adult cisgender men in medium and high-complexity healthcare settings based on social determinants and conditioners.

Methods: This study employed a qualitative design involving 45 adult cisgender men receiving care in medium/high complexity services in Bahia, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted from July 2019 to February 2020, and data were interpreted based on Dahlgren and Whitehead’s Model of Social Determinants of Health using deductive thematic analysis.

Results: Proximal determinants included biological aspects, preventive behaviors, lifestyle/social life, and aging processes. Intermediate factors included work conditions, access/utilization of healthcare services/medications, and psychosocial factors. Macro determinants involved income distribution, power dynamics, resource allocation, health inequalities/iniquities, morbidity, culture, political decisions, environmental factors, and structural elements.

Conclusion: The health status of men in medium/high complexity care was profoundly influenced by structural social determinants. These determinants impacted healthcare attention, service organization, cultural influences, the reproduction of hegemonic masculinity patterns, lifestyle, social support, and socioeconomic conditions necessary to realize the right to health. Nursing practices should conduct comprehensive assessments that extend beyond physical health indicators.


Supporting Agencies

This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001


Copyright (c) 2024 Márcio Soares de Almeida, Bruna Rafaela Carneiro, Albert Ramon Oliveira Santos, Claudia Geovana da Silva Pires, Fransley Lima Santos, Alvaro Francisco Lopes de Sousa, Anderson Reis de Sousa, Álvaro Pereira, Layze Braz de Oliveira, Liliane Moretti Carneiro, Isabel Amélia Costa Mendes

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors declared no conflict of interest in this study.

Authors’ Contributions

MSdA, AFLdS, & IACM: Conception and design of the study; Analysis and interpretation of data; Provision of study material; Critical revision; Final approval of the study.

BRC, & AROS: Analysis and interpretation of data; Provision of study material; Critical revision; Final approval of the study.

CGdSP, FLS, AP, LBdO, & LMC: Analysis and interpretation of data; Critical revision; Final approval of the study

ARdS: Conception and design of the study; Analysis and interpretation of data; Provision of study material; Critical revision; Final approval of the study.

Data Availability

The datasets generated and analyzed in this article are available from the corresponding author.

Declaration of Use of AI in Scientific Writing

There is nothing to declare.


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