Identifying diabetes risks among Indonesians: A cross-sectional study in a community setting


risk factors
blood glucose

How to Cite

Tarigan, M., Setiawan, Tarigan, R., Imelda, F., & Jongudomkarn, D. (2024). Identifying diabetes risks among Indonesians: A cross-sectional study in a community setting. Belitung Nursing Journal, 10(1), 41–47.
Google Scholar

Link to Google Scholar

Funder - Crossref Registry

Accepted for publication: 2024-01-29
Peer reviewed: Yes

Related articles in

Search Relations - Article by Author(s)

Share this article on:


Background: There is an upward surge in diabetes patients worldwide, including in Indonesia, annually. Diabetes can lead to new diseases that burden patients’ lives further. Nurses can reduce this problem by identifying people at risk of developing diabetes and educating them on how to prevent diabetes.

Objective: The study aimed to determine the risk of diabetes in the Indonesian population.

Methods: The descriptive research involved a sample of 1216 Indonesians living in North Sumatra Province. Participants were nondiabetic individuals selected using the convenience method from May to October 2020. This study utilized the Indonesian version of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) tool and employed various statistical analyses, including frequencies, percentages, chi-square test, and Fisher’s exact test.

Results: Of the total samples, 372 were males (30.6%), and 844 were females (69.4%). The risk of developing diabetes was classified as low (57.1%), slightly elevated (36.4%), moderate (5.3%), high (1.0%), and very high (0.2%). Only one of the eight risk factors that differed significantly between men and women was a history of elevated blood glucose levels, with a p-value of 0.02.

Conclusion: The study identified a portrait of the number and percentage of diabetes risk factors in a community setting in Indonesia. Nurses must provide education on diabetes prevention to not only members of the local community at the research site but also the general public, nationally and globally.

Supporting Agencies

The Research Institute of Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, granted this research


Copyright (c) 2024 Mula Tarigan, Setiawan, Rosina Tarigan, Fatwa Imelda, Darunee Jongudomkarn

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Article Metrics

Total views 143 [Abstract: 64 | PDF: 79 | XML: 0 ]


Download data is not yet available.

PlumX Metrics

Declaration of Conflicting Interest

There is no conflict of interest among all authors.


Researchers would like to thank the Research Institute of Universitas Sumatera Utara for providing financial support in this research and all participants for their kind cooperation.

Authors’ Contributions

The authors of the Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia, have contributed substantially in terms of design and conception, data collection, analysis, and interpretation, as well as intellectual content. The author of the Faculty of Nursing, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, contributed to the interpretation and intellectual content.

Data Availability

All data is available from the corresponding author and can be provided upon reasonable request.

Declaration of Use of AI in Scientific Writing

There is nothing to declare.


Acosta, T., Barengo, N. C., Arrieta, A., Ricaurte, C., & Tuomilehto, J. O. (2018). A demonstration area for type 2 diabetes prevention in Barranquilla and Juan Mina (Colombia): Baseline characteristics of the study participants. Medicine, 97(1), e9285.

Al-Shudifat, A.-E., Al-Shdaifat, A., Al-Abdouh, A. A., Aburoman, M. I., Otoum, S. M., Sweedan, A. G., Khrais, I., Abdel-Hafez, I. H., & Johannessen, A. (2017). Diabetes risk score in a young student population in Jordan: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2017, 8290710.

Alazzam, M. F., Darwazeh, A. M.-G., Hassona, Y. M., & Khader, Y. S. (2020). Diabetes mellitus risk among Jordanians in a dental setting: A cross-sectional study. International Dental Journal, 70(6), 482-488.

American Diabetes Association. (2003). Screening for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 26(suppl_1), S21-S24.

An, Y., Yi, S., Fitzpatrick, A., Gupta, V., Prak, P. R., Oum, S., & LoGerfo, J. P. (2013). Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoff for overweight and central obesity among adults in Cambodia. PloS One, 8(10), e77897.

Annis, A. M., Caulder, M. S., Cook, M. L., & Duquette, D. (2005). Family history, diabetes, and other demographic and risk factors among participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. Preventing Chronic Disease, 2(2), A19.

Aregbesola, A., Voutilainen, S., Virtanen, J. K., Mursu, J., & Tuomainen, T.-P. (2017). Gender difference in type 2 diabetes and the role of body iron stores. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 54(1), 113-120.

Asfaw, M. S., & Dagne, W. K. (2022). Physical activity can improve diabetes patients' glucose control; A systematic review and meta-analysis. Heliyon, 8(12), e12267.

Atayoglu, A. T., Inanc, N., Başmisirli, E., & Çapar, A. G. (2020). Evaluation of the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) for diabetes screening in Kayseri, Turkey. Primary Care Diabetes, 14(5), 488-493.

Australia Centre Medan. (2017). Australia Centre Medan.

Barengo, N. C., Acosta, T., Arrieta, A., Ricaurte, C., Smits, D., Florez, K., & Tuomilehto, J. O. (2019). Early lifestyle interventions in people with impaired glucose tolerance in Northern Colombia: the DEMOJUAN Project. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(8), 1403.

Barouti, A. A., Tynelius, P., Lager, A., & Björklund, A. (2022). Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: Results from a 20-year long prospective cohort study in Swedish men and women. European Journal of Nutrition, 61(6), 3175-3187.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). Incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes.

Ciarambino, T., Crispino, P., Leto, G., Mastrolorenzo, E., Para, O., & Giordano, M. (2022). Influence of gender in diabetes mellitus and its complication. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(16), 8850.

Dallosso, H., Khunti, K., Gray, L. J., Hulley, K., Ghaly, M., Patel, N., Kai, J., Aujla, N., Davies, M. J., & Yates, T. (2023). Implementation of a diabetes prevention programme in a multi-ethnic community in primary care in England: An evaluation using constructs from the RE-AIM Framework. Primary Care Diabetes, 17(4), 309-313.

Deli Serdang Regency Central Statistics Agency. (2018). Deli Tua District in numbers, 2018. Deli Serdang: Central Statistics Agency.

Gray, L. J., Willis, A., Webb, D., Davies, M. J., & Khunti, K. (2018). Screening for diabetes and prediabetes. In E. Bonora & R. A. DeFronzo (Eds.), Diabetes epidemiology, genetics, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment (pp. 369-400). Springer International Publishing.

Gyberg, V., Hasson, D., Tuomilehto, J., & Rydén, L. (2012). Measuring risk online—feasibility of using FINDRISC in an online workplace survey. Primary Care Diabetes, 6(2), 103-107.

Health Social Security Administrator. (2014). Practical guide to PROLANIS (Chronic Disease Management Program) [in Bahasa]. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of Republic Indonesia.

Hsieh, C.-J., Wang, P.-W., & Chen, T.-Y. (2014). The relationship between regional abdominal fat distribution and both insulin resistance and subclinical chronic inflammation in non-diabetic adults. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 6, 49.

Huebschmann, A. G., Huxley, R. R., Kohrt, W. M., Zeitler, P., Regensteiner, J. G., & Reusch, J. E. B. (2019). Sex differences in the burden of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk across the life course. Diabetologia, 62, 1761-1772.

International Diabetes Federation. (2021). IDF 2021 diabetes atlas.

Ishaque, A., Shahzad, F., Muhammad, F. H., Usman, Y., & Ishaque, Z. (2016). Diabetes risk assessment among squatter settlements in Pakistan: A cross-sectional study. Malaysian Family Physician, 11(2-3), 9-15.

Ismail, L., Materwala, H., & Al Kaabi, J. (2021). Association of risk factors with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 19, 1759-1785.

Israel, G. D. (2003). Determining sample size [PEOD6]. Florida: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.

Kautzky-Willer, A., Leutner, M., & Harreiter, J. (2023). Sex differences in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 66(6), 986-1002.

Kong, A. P. S., Luk, A. O. Y., & Chan, J. C. N. (2016). Detecting people at high risk of type 2 diabetes-How do we find them and who should be treated? Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 30(3), 345-355.

Kumar, A., Wong, R., Ottenbacher, K. J., & Al Snih, S. (2016). Prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults: Findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Annals of Epidemiology, 26(3), 163-170.

Lapuente, M., Estruch, R., Shahbaz, M., & Casas, R. (2019). Relation of fruits and vegetables with major cardiometabolic risk factors, markers of oxidation, and inflammation. Nutrients, 11(10), 2381.

Ley, S. H., & Meigs, J. B. (2018). Epidemiology and risk factors of type 2 diabetes. In E. Bonora & R. A. DeFronzo (Eds.), Diabetes epidemiology, genetics, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment (pp. 55-80). Springer International Publishing.

Ley, S. H., Schulze, M. B., Hivert, M.-F., Meigs, J. B., & Hu, F. B. (2018). Risk factors for type 2 diabetes In C. C. Cowie, S. S. Casagrande, A. Menke, M. A. Cissell, M. S. Eberhardt, J. B. Meigs, E. W. Gregg, W. C. Knowler, E. Barrett-Connor, D. J. Becker, F. L. Brancati, E. J. Boyko, W. H. Herman, B. V. Howard, K. M. V. Narayan, M. Rewers, & J. E. Fradkin (Eds.), Diabetes in America (3rd ed., pp. 1-37). National Institutes of Health.

Li, T., Quan, H., Zhang, H., Lin, L., Lin, L., Ou, Q., & Chen, K. (2021). Type 2 diabetes is more predictable in women than men by multiple anthropometric and biochemical measures. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 6062.

Lindstrom, J., & Tuomilehto, J. (2003). The diabetes risk score: A practical tool to predict type 2 diabetes risk. Diabetes Care, 26(3), 725-731.

Marsden, A. M., Hann, M., Barron, E., Ross, J., Valabhji, J., Murray, E., & Cotterill, S. (2023). Comparison of weight change between face-to-face and digital delivery of the English National Health service diabetes prevention programme: An exploratory non-inferiority study with imputation of plausible weight outcomes. Preventive Medicine Reports, 32, 102161.

McPherson, A. R., & Bancks, M. P. (2023). Assessment for gender differences in trend in age at diagnosis of diabetes among US adults, 1999–2020. Diabetes Care, 46(3), e76-e77.

Ministry of Health Indonesia. (2018). Basic health research (Riskesdas).

Moore-Harper, T. A., Shubrook, J. H., & Clavo-Hall, J. (2023). Nurses on the front-line of diabetes prevention. International Journal of Nursing and Health Care Research, 6(3), 1416.

Nazarko, L. (2023). Type 2 diabetes: An overview of risk factors and prevention of onset. Nursing Times.

Nordström, A., Hadrévi, J., Olsson, T., Franks, P. W., & Nordström, P. (2016). Higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in men than in women is associated with differences in visceral fat mass. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 101(10), 3740-3746.

Nugroho, P. S., Tianingrum, N. A., Sunarti, S., Rachman, A., Fahrurodzi, D. S., & Amiruddin, R. (2020). Predictor risk of diabetes mellitus in Indonesia, based on national health survey. Malaysian Journal of Medicine & Health Sciences, 16(1), 126-130.

Oktaviyani, P., Salman, S., Happy Nurmalita Sari, M., Frisilia, M., Munazar, M., Satria, A., & Maretalinia, M. (2022). Prevalence and risk factors of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among the Indonesian elderly. Makara Journal of Health Research, 26(1), 7-13.

Omech, B., Mwita, J. C., Tshikuka, J.-G., Tsima, B., Nkomazna, O., & Amone-P’Olak, K. (2016). Validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for detecting undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among general medical outpatients in Botswana. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2016, 4968350.

Petrie, J. R., Guzik, T. J., & Touyz, R. M. (2018). Diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: Clinical insights and vascular mechanisms. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 34(5), 575-584.

Saleem, S. M., Khan, S. M. S., & Jan, S. S. (2017). Finnish diabetic risk score: A tool for predicting risk of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 7, 295-298.

Soewondo, P., Soegondo, S., Suastika, K., Pranoto, A., Soeatmadji, D. W., & Tjokroprawiro, A. (2010). The DiabCare Asia 2008 study–Outcomes on control and complications of type 2 diabetic patients in Indonesia. Medical Journal of Indonesia, 19(4), 235-244.

Tanoey, J., & Becher, H. (2021). Diabetes prevalence and risk factors of early-onset adult diabetes: Results from the Indonesian family life survey. Global Health Action, 14(1), 2001144.

The InterAct Consortium. (2013). The link between family history and risk of type 2 diabetes is not explained by anthropometric, lifestyle or genetic risk factors: the EPIC-InterAct study. Diabetologia, 56, 60-69.

Tramunt, B., Smati, S., Grandgeorge, N., Lenfant, F., Arnal, J.-F., Montagner, A., & Gourdy, P. (2020). Sex differences in metabolic regulation and diabetes susceptibility. Diabetologia, 63, 453-461.

Vandersmissen, G. J., & Godderis, L. (2015). Evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) for diabetes screening in occupational health care. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 28(3), 587-591.

Wang, P. Y., Fang, J. C., Gao, Z. H., Zhang, C., & Xie, S. Y. (2016). Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta‐analysis. Journal of Diabetes Investigation, 7(1), 56-69.

WHO Expert Consultation. (2004). Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. The Lancet, 363(9403), 157-163.

Yang, L., Shao, J., Bian, Y., Wu, H., Shi, L., Zeng, L., Li, W., & Dong, J. (2016). Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among inland residents in China (2000–2014): A meta‐analysis. Journal of Diabetes Investigation, 7(6), 845-852.

Zhang, J., Yang, Z., Xiao, J., Xing, X., Lu, J., Weng, J., Jia, W., Ji, L., Shan, Z., & Liu, J. (2015). Association between family history risk categories and prevalence of diabetes in Chinese population. PloS One, 10(2), e0117044.

Readers are able to give us their valuable feedbacks here. The comments will be reviewed by the editors and then published here. Important Note: The "Comments" related to the Galley Proof PDF must NOT be submitted via this form. Authors should submit their comments on their galley proofs only via system