Experiences and perceptions of nurses and air ambulance service providers in carrying out aeromedical evacuations in Indonesia: A qualitative research


air ambulances
clinical competence
health personnel
reference standards
aerospace medicine

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Ambarwati, D., Warsini, S., Hapsara, S., & Haryanti, F. (2024). Experiences and perceptions of nurses and air ambulance service providers in carrying out aeromedical evacuations in Indonesia: A qualitative research. Belitung Nursing Journal, 10(2), 176–184. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.3232
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Accepted for publication: 2024-04-02
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Background: Basic non-military flight nurse training is essential for enhancing nurses’ competency in conducting aeromedical evacuations. Trained nurses possessing flight nurse proficiency are indispensable for ensuring stable patient conditions amidst the unique physical, physiological, and psychological challenges encountered during flights.

Objective: This study aimed to describe the experiences and perceptions of nurses and air ambulance service providers regarding aeromedical evacuations.

Methods: This study employed a qualitative descriptive design. Data were gathered from February to July 2023 through semi-structured online interviews with seven nurses and air ambulance service providers engaged in aeromedical evacuation. Content analysis was utilized to interpret the interview data.

Results: Seven themes were generated: 1) Experiences in aeromedical evacuation experiences, 2) Challenges faced by nurses and air ambulance service providers during aeromedical evacuations, 3) Essential knowledge for nurses involved in aeromedical evacuations, 4) Efforts to improve nurses’ knowledge and skills, 5) Leveling of flight nurse training, 6) Flight nurse training methods, and 7) Flight nurse training evaluation strategies.

Conclusion: Nurses and air ambulance service providers acknowledge the significant influence of the flight environment on changes in patient conditions during aeromedical evacuations. To effectively manage alterations in patient conditions during flights, healthcare workers equipped with aviation health competency are imperative. One approach to enhancing the competency of healthcare workers is through flight nurse training. The findings from this study serve as a valuable resource for policymakers and health-related institutions endeavoring to formulate aeromedical evacuation strategies.


Supporting Agencies

The RTA Program of the Universitas Gadjah Mada funded this study under Grant Number 5075/UN1.P.II/Dit-Lit/PT.01.0/2023


Copyright (c) 2024 Dwi Ambarwati, Sri Warsini, Sunartini Hapsara, Fitri Haryanti

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors declared no conflict of interest.


The RTA Program of the Universitas Gadjah Mada funded this study under Grant Number 5075/UN1.P.II/Dit-Lit/PT.01.0/2023.


We would like to express our gratitude to the nurses, aeromedical evacuation service providers, and any other parties involved in developing the curriculum and basic flight nurse training modules in this study. We would also like to express our sincere appreciation to all individuals willing to provide information. This research is supported by Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Authors’ Contributions

All authors contributed equally to this study in substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work, drafting of the work, and final approval of the version to be published.

Data Availability

The datasets generated during and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Declaration of Use of AI in Scientific Writing

The authors have declared that no generative AI was used in writing.


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