related factors
older people

How to Cite

Gustryanti, K., Thongpat, S., & Maneerat, S. (2017). FACTORS RELATED TO DEPRESSION AMONG OLDER PEOPLE LIVING IN CIMAHI, WEST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA. Belitung Nursing Journal, 3(1), 14–22. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.50
Share |


Background: Depression is commonly found in older people. The prevalence of depression among older people, particularly in Indonesia is increasing worldwide.

Objective: This study aimed to identify the factors related to depression among older people living in Cimahi, West Java Province, Indonesia.

Method: A cross sectional design was used with a total of 267 older people aged from 60 to 79 years old. A multi-stage random sampling was used in five public health centers in Cimahi. The instruments comprised of socio-demographic questionnaires, general health perceptions questionnaire, Chula Activities of Daily Living Index (CADLI), and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15). Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistic, chi-square, and point-biserial.

Results: The result revealed that 56.2% of respondents were no depression and 43.8% of respondents was depression. The results also showed that age, marital status, family history of depression, perceived health status, and activities of daily living was significant relationship with depression among older people (p<.01; p<.05).

Conclusion: This finding can be used as a reference to implement new strategies to decrease depression among older people.


This article has been corrected with a separate erratum: https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1141


Supporting Agencies

Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE) of Indonesia


Copyright (c) 2017 Kiki Gustryanti, Sunanta Thongpat, Sonthaya Maneerat

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Article Metrics

Abstract views: 1074 | PDF views: 342


Download data is not yet available.

PlumX Metrics


World Health Organization. Depression global concern. 2012; http://www.who.int/depressionglobalconcern/ef/en. Accessed 21 April 2015.

Lépine JP, Briley M. The Increasing Burden of Depression. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2011;7(1):3-7.

Lai D, Surood S. Socio-cultural variations in depressive symptoms of ageing South Asian Canadians. Asian Journal of Gerontology & Geriatrics. 2008;3(2):84-91.

Central Statistical Agency. 2014; http://bps.go.id/website/pdf_publikasi/watermark _Statistik Penduduk Lansia 2013.pdf. Accessed 30 March 2015.

Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia. Elderly bulletin semester I 2013. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia; 2013.

Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia. Gambaran kesehatan lanjut usia di Indonesia [Description of aging health in Indonesia]. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia; 2014.

Hatala HR. The status of the "biopsychosocial" model in health psychology: towards an integrated approach and a critique of cultural conceptions. Open Journal of Medical Psychology. 2012;1(1):51-62.

Gilbert P. Psychotherapy and counselling for depression. London: Sage Publications Ltd; 2007.

Jilks J. Depression. 2007 http://www.jilks.com/articles/Depression.html. Accessed 21 April, 2015.

Kim JI, Choe MA, Chae YR. Prevalence and Predictors of geriatric depression in community-dwelling elderly. Asian Nursing Research. 2009;3(3):121-129.

Shin N-M, Choi J. Relationship between survivors’ perceived health status following acute coronary syndrome and depression symptoms during early recovery phase. Asian Nursing Research. 2010;4(4):174-184.

Evandrou M, Falkingham J, Feng Z, Vlachantoni A. Individual and province inequalities in health among older people in China: Evidence and policy implications. Health and Place. 2014;30(1):134-144.

Blay SL, Andreoli, Fillenbaum GG, Gastal FL. Depression morbidity in later life: prevalence and correlates in a developing country. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2007;15(7):790–799.

Suen LW, Morris DL. Depression and gender differences: focus on taiwanese older adults. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 2006;32(1):28-36.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Improving our response to older adults with substance use, mental health and gambling problems: a guide for supervisors, managers, and clinical staff. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health; 2008.

Lou VWQ, Kwan CW, Chong MLA, Chi I. Associations between secondary caregivers’ supportive behavior and psychological distress of primary spousal caregivers of cognitively intact and impaired elders. Gerontologist. 2013;10(1):1-11.

Shin KR, Kang Y, Kim MY, Jung D, Kim JS, Hong CM, Yun ES, Ma RW. Impact of depression and activities of daily living on the fear of falling in korean community-dwelling elderly. Nursing & Health Sciences. 2010;12(4):493-498.

Dale B, Derhamn US, Derhamn OS. Self-care ability among home-dwelling older people in rural areas in Southern Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. 2011;26(1):113-122.

Hossein YES. The frequency of the depression among elderly population and to explore possible associations between depression severity and daily accomplishments in minia geriatric club. American Journal of Nursing Science. 2015;4(2):31-38.

Grewal I, Lewis J, Flynn T, Brown J, Bond J, Coast J. 2006. Developing attributes for a generic quality of life measure for older people: preferences or capabilities? Social & Medicine. 2006;62(8):1891-1901.

Murphy K, O’Shea E, Cooney A, Casey D. The quality of life of older people with a disability in Ireland. Dublin: National council on ageing and older people; 2007

Ouden Med, Schuurmans MJ, Arts IE, Schouw YTvd. Association between physical performance characteristics and independence in activities of daily living in middle-aged and elderly men. Japan Geriatrics Society. 2012;10(1):1-7.

Unsar S, Dindar I, Kurt S. Activities of daily living, quality of life, social support and depression levels of elderly individuals in Turkish society. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2015;65(6):642-646.

Lawrence BJ, Gasson N, Kane R, Bucks and RS, AM. Activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life in parkinson's disease. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):1-6.

Pfeiffer E. A Short portable mental status questionnaire for the assessment of organic brain deficit in elderly patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1975;23(10):433-41.

Yessavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, Lum O, Huang V, Adey MB, Leirer VO. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 1983;17(1):37-49.

Agustini NLPIB. Predictors of quality of life of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Kasetsart University: Thesis; 2013.

Jitapunkul S, Kamolratanakul P, Ebrahim S. The meaning of activities of daily living in a Thai elderly population: Development of a new index. Age Ageing. 1994;23(2):97-101.

Tabloski PA, Gerontological nursing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall; 2006

Darmojo B, Ilmu kesehatan usia lanjut [Elderly health]. Jakarta: FK UI; 2006

Kamiya Y, Doyle M, Henretta JC, Timonen V. Depressive symptoms among older adults: the impact of early and later life circumstances and marital status. Aging Mental Health. 2013;17(3):349-357.

Nyer M, Kasckow J, Fellows I, Lawrence EC, Golshan S, Solorzano E, Zisook S. The relationship of marital status and clinical characteristics in middle-aged and older patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptoms. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. 2010;22(3):172-179.

Monroe SM, George MS, Ian HG. Life stress and family history for depression: the moderating role of past depressive episodes. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2014;49(1):90-95.

Alvarez JM, Glesson JF, Henry LP. Road to full recovery: longitudinal relationship between symptomatic remission and psychosocial recovery in first-episode psychosis over 7.5 years. Psychological Medical. 2012;42(1):595-606

Fernandez-Nino JA, Manrique-Espinoza BS, Bojorquez-Chapela I, Salinas-Rodríguez A. Income inequality, socioeconomic deprivation and depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):108-127.

Galloway AP, Henry M. Relationships between social connectedness and spirituality and depression and perceived health status of rural residents. Online Journal of Rural Nursing & Health Care. 2014;14(2):43-79.

Chun SY, Han KT, Lee SY, Kim CO, Park EC. Synergistic effect of interaction between perceived health and social activity on depressive symptoms in the middle-aged and elderly: A population-based longitudinal study. BMJ Open. 2015;5(1):1-8.

Wada T, Ishine M, Sakagami T, Kita T, Okumiya K, Mizuno K, Rambo TA, Matsubayashi K. Depression, activities of daily living, and quality of life of community-dwelling elderly in three Asian Countries: Indonesia, Vietnam, and Japan. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2005;40(1):271-280.

Kazama M, Kondo N, Suzuki K, Minai J, Imai H, Yamagata Z. Early Impact of depression symptoms on the decline in activities of daily living among older Japanese: Y-Hale cohort study. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 2011;16(3):196-201.

Tiedt AD. Cross-national comparisons of gender differences in late-life depressive symptoms in Japan and the United States. Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 2013;68(3):443-454.