Supplementary Files

Research Instrument


transtheoretical model
physical exercise
type 2 diabetes mellitus

How to Cite

Siregar, R., Stongpat, S., & Wattanakul, B. (2018). INCREASING SELF-EFFICACY TO REGULATE EXERCISE IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. Belitung Nursing Journal, 4(6), 596–601.
Share |


Background: Self-efficacy has been described as dominant factor associated with physical exercise in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but to improve self-efficacy to regulate exercise of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is a challenge for health workers.

Objective: This study was to determine the effect of exercise consultation program on self-efficacy to regulate exercise in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: A quasi-experimental study with two comparison groups was purposively designed for pre-test and post-test procedures. Sixty-one patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus were allocated into the experimental group (31 patients) and the control group (29 patients). While the experimental group received the exercise consultation for 12 weeks and routine care, the control group received routine care only. Comparative assessments on differences in self-efficacy to regulate exercise were examined both within and between groups using paired or unpaired t-test.

Results: After receiving exercise consultation program, self-efficacy to regulate exercise significantly increased within the experimental group (p < .05), but there was no significant change with in the control group.  Between groups, there was a significant difference self-efficacy to regulate exercise in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (p < .05).

Conclusion: The exercise consultation program could increase self-efficacy to promote the physical exercise among adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Supporting Agencies

Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Sari Mutiara Indonesia


Copyright (c) 2018 Rinco Siregar, Sunantha Thongpat, Boontuan Wattanakul

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Article Metrics

Abstract views: 2207 | PDF views: 503 | Research Instrument views: 0


Download data is not yet available.

PlumX Metrics


Allen, N. A., Fain, J. A., Braun, B., & Chipkin, S. R. (2008). Continuous glucose monitoring counseling improves physical activity behaviors of individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 80(3), 371-379.

Burbank, P. M., & Riebe, D. (2001). Promoting exercise and behavior change in older adults: Interventions with the transtheoretical model. United States: Springer Publishing Company.

Colberg, S. R., Sigal, R. J., Fernhall, B., Regensteiner, J. G., Blissmer, B. J., Rubin, R. R., . . . Braun, B. (2010). Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: Joint position statement. Diabetes Care, 33(12), e147-e167.

Dalle Grave, R., Calugi, S., Centis, E., El Ghoch, M., & Marchesini, G. (2010). Cognitive-behavioral strategies to increase the adherence to exercise in the management of obesity. Journal of Obesity, 2011.

Ferguson, S. S. (1997). Exercise adherence in persons with type 2 diabetes and relationship to diabetes control. Madison: University of Wisconsin.

Indriyani, P., Supriyatno, H., & Santoso, A. (2010). Pengaruh latihan fisik; senam aerobik terhadap penurunan kadar gula darah pada penderita DM tipe 2 di wilayah Puskesmas Bukateja Purbalingga [Effect of physical training; aerobic exercise on the decrease of blood sugar level in patients with type 2 DM at the working area of Puskesmas Bukateja Purbalingga]. Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 1(2).

Jackson, R., Asimakopoulou, K., & Scammell, A. (2007). Assessment of the transtheoretical model as used by dietitians in promoting physical activity in people with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 20(1), 27-36.

Kirk, A., MacMillan, F., & Webster, N. (2010). Application of the transtheoretical model to physical activity in older adults with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(4), 320-324.

Korkiakangas, E. E., Alahuhta, M. A., & Laitinen, J. H. (2009). Barriers to regular exercise among adults at high risk or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review. Health Promotion International, 24(4), 416-427.

Lenio, J. A. (2006). Analysis of the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change. Journal of Student Research, 5, 73-87.

Loughlan, C., & Mutrie, N. (1996). Conducting an exercise consultation: guidelines for health professionals. Journal of the Institute of Health Education, 33(3), 78-82.

Marcus, B. H., Selby, V. C., Niaura, R. S., & Rossi, J. S. (1992). Self-efficacy and the stages of exercise behavior change. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 63(1), 60-66.

Mawarti, S., & Sriwahyuniati, F. (2005). Pengaruh latihan kontinyu senam diabetes Indonesia dalam menurunkan kadar gula darah pada penderita diabetes mellitus [Effect of continuous Indonesian diabetes exercise in lowering blood sugar level of diabetes mellitus patients]. Yogyakarta: University of Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Morrato, E. H., Hill, J. O., Wyatt, H. R., Ghushchyan, V., & Sullivan, P. W. (2007). Physical activity in US adults with diabetes and at risk for developing diabetes, 2003. Diabetes Care, 30(2), 203-209.

Plotnikoff, R. C., Trinh, L., Courneya, K. S., Karunamuni, N., & Sigal, R. J. (2011). Predictors of physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes. American Journal of Health Behavior, 35(3), 359-370.

Pramono, L. A., Setiati, S., Soewondo, P., Subekti, I., Adisasmita, A., Kodim, N., & Sutrisna, B. (2010). Prevalence and predictors of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in Indonesia. Age, 46(53.6), 100.100.

Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W. F. (1997). The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12(1), 38-48.

Santoso, M. (2010). Senam diabetes Indonesia seri 5. Persatuan Diabetes Indonesia (PERSADIA) (Indonesian Diabetes Association). Jakarta: Yayasan Diabetes Indonesia (YADINA).

Sigal, R. J., Kenny, G. P., Wasserman, D. H., Castaneda-Sceppa, C., & White, R. D. (2006). Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes: a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 29(6), 1433-1438.

Sinaga, M., & Hiswani, J. (2012). Karakteristik penderita diabetes melitus dengan komplikasi yang dirawat inap di Rumah Sakit Vita Insani Pematangsiantar [Characteristics of patients with diabetes mellitus with complication in inpatient ward of Rumah Sakit Vita Insani Pematangsiantar]. Sumatera Utara: Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarkat Universitas Sumatera Utara.

Unairawati, W., & Soetjiatie, L. (2011). Efek senam diabetes terhadap penurunan kadar gula darah pasien diabetes mellitus tipe 2 di RW. II. Krembangan Bhakti, Surabaya, Indonesia [Effect of diabetic exercise in lowering blood sugar level in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at RW. II. Krembangan Bhakti, Surabaya, Indonesia]. Jurnal Keperawatan, 4(2), 75-79.

Utomo, O. M., Azam, M., & Ningrum, D. N. A. (2012). Pengaruh senam terhadap kadar gula darah penderita diabetes [Effect of exercise on blood sugar level in diabetic patients]. Unnes Journal of Public Health, 1(1).

Wild, S., Roglic, G., Green, A., Sicree, R., & King, H. (2004). Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care, 27(5), 1047-1053.