Belitung Nursing Journal <div id="journalDescription"> <p>BNJ is a peer-reviewed, "<a href="">Gold</a>" open access journal that provides a venue for nursing scholarship with an Asian focus and perspectives from the region. BNJ welcomes submissions of original research, review articles, theory &amp; concept development, perspectives, letters, methodology papers, study protocols, and case studies on various clinical and professional nursing topics.</p> </div> Belitung Raya Foundation, Indonesia en-US Belitung Nursing Journal 2477-4073 <p>Authors who publish with Belitung Nursing Journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright licensed under&nbsp;a&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC 4.0</a>,&nbsp;which&nbsp;allows others to&nbsp;remix, tweak, and build upon the authors' work non-commercially, and although the others' new works must also acknowledge the authors and be non-commercial, they don't have to license their derivative works on the same terms.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="">The Effect of Open Access</a>). In other words, authors <strong>can</strong> archive pre-print (submitted version),&nbsp;<em>&nbsp;</em>post-print (accepted version), and publisher's version/PDF. Read also <a href="">self-archiving-policy</a>.</li> </ol> Online ‘chatting’ interviews: An acceptable method for qualitative data collection <div><span lang="EN">Qualitative research methods allow researchers to understand the experiences of patients, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. Qualitative research also provides scientists with information about how decisions are made and the aspects of existing interventions. However, to get to obtain this important information, qualitative research requires holistic, rich, and nuanced data that can be analyzed to determine themes, categories, or emerging patterns. Generally, offline or in-person interviews, focus group discussions, and observations are three core approaches to data collection. However, geographical barriers, logistic challenges, and emergency conditions, such as the COVID-19 pandemic have necessitated the utilization of online interviews, including chatting as an alternative way of collecting data. This editorial aims to discuss the possibility of online chat interviews as an acceptable design in qualitative data collection.</span></div> Joko Gunawan Colleen Marzilli Yupin Aungsuroch Copyright (c) 2022 Joko Gunawan, Colleen Marzilli, Yupin Aungsuroch 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 277 279 10.33546/bnj.2252 Sexual abstinence as a reproductive health-promoting behavior for women: A perspective <p>This article is intended to provide an appropriate context for adopting sexual abstinence from a health-promoting behavioral perspective that can be applied to women of reproductive age worldwide to improve reproductive health, maintain well-being, and prevent health problems in women. The topics related to women’s health status, sexual abstinence definitions, benefits, and application, as well as sexual autonomy and efficacy, including family collaboration, are discussed. This article will provide health care providers, especially nurses and midwives, with new ideas for integrating sexual abstinence into nursing and midwifery practice.</p> La-Ongdao Wannarit Copyright (c) 2022 La-Ongdao Wannarit 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 372 377 10.33546/bnj.2155 A comprehensive discharge planning program on fatigue and functional status of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing transarterial chemoembolization: A randomized clinical controlled trial <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background: </strong>Post transarterial chemoembolization (post-TACE) causes side effects that impact patients, which leads to fatigue symptoms and reduced functional status. However, unrelieved fatigue and reduced functional status may cause patients to withdraw from treatment and negatively affect their lives. Unfortunately, the patients post-TACE only receive routine medical care at the hospital but no follow-up and continuity of care back home. Therefore, comprehensive discharge planning for these problems is necessary.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Objective: </strong>This study examined the effectiveness of the comprehensive discharge planning program on fatigue and functional status of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing transarterial chemoembolization.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Methods: </strong>A randomized clinical controlled trial was used. Fifty-two patients who met the study criteria were randomly assigned to an experimental group (<em>n</em> = 26) receiving the comprehensive discharge planning plus routine care and a control group (<em>n</em> = 26) receiving routine care only. The discharge planning program was developed based on the Transitional Care Model. A demographic and health data questionnaire, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and Enforced Social Dependency Scale (ESDS) were used for data collection. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, Wilcoxon signed-rank, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for data analysis.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Results: </strong>The mean scores for fatigue at 30 days after treatment between the experimental and control groups were significantly different (<em>p</em> = 0.003). The mean scores for the fatigue symptoms in the experimental and control groups were 1.27 ± 0.58 and 1.77 ± 0.85, respectively. The functional status from Day 7 to Day 14 after transarterial chemoembolization was different (<em>p</em> = 0.020). In addition, the mean scores for functional status between the experimental and control groups were significantly different (<em>p</em> = 0.020). On Day 14, after transarterial chemoembolization, the experimental group had an increased score in functional status from Day 7 over the scores for those in the control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong><span style="font-weight: 400;">The comprehensive discharge planning program effectively reduces fatigue symptoms and enhances the functional status in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing transarterial chemoembolization. Therefore, the comprehensive discharge planning program can be used by nurses and multidisciplinary teams in order to achieve the effectiveness of nursing care for patients.</span></p> Nawiya Yenjai Usavadee Asdornwised Kessiri Wongkongkam Nutcha Pinjaroen Copyright (c) 2022 Nawiya Yenjai, Usavadee Asdornwised, Kessiri Wongkongkam, Nutcha Pinjaroen 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 287 295 10.33546/bnj.2140 Prevalence of depression in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background: </strong>A hemodialysis is a treatment option for patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). However, patients undergoing hemodialysis three times per week may experience psychological issues, including depression, which are highly prevalent among patients. Unfortunately, most healthcare providers fail to recognize the symptoms of depression due to overlap with other somatic symptoms; thus, depression remains undiagnosed<strong>.</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression and compare the differences in depression symptoms according to the sociodemographic characteristics of patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Method:</strong> A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2021 with a total of 132 hemodialysis patients using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II) questionnaire to examine symptoms of depression at multiple health centers in Jeddah. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Post-hoc analysis using Conover tests were used for data analysis.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of depression in hemodialysis patients was 51.5%, 25.8%, 15.9%, and 6.8%, with minimal, mild, moderate, and severe symptoms, respectively. Depression exhibited a significant relationship with sex (<em>p</em> = 0.034), with females showing higher mean depression scores than males. Additionally, depression scores were statistically significant across the different levels of education (<em>p</em> = 0.019), with the mean depression scores significantly highest in subjects who had only primary school level of education. Furthermore, the most common symptoms associated with depression were found to be energy loss and fatigue.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Depression prevalence was relatively low among patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis, and a loss of energy and fatigue were the most common symptoms correlated with depression. Hence, nurses should be trained on how to routinely use psychological screening scales among patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis.</p> Lujain Sallam Fatmah Alsharif Sarah Abaalalaa Rawan Alakeely Zahraa Abdullah Zahra Alkhamis Najla Sindi Loujain S Sharif Copyright (c) 2022 Lujain Sallam, Fatmah Alsharif, Sarah Abaalalaa, Rawan Alakeely, Zahraa Abdullah, Zahra Alkhamis, Najla Sindi, Loujain S Sharif 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 296 303 10.33546/bnj.2080 The effect of Benson relaxation application (‘Bens app’) on reducing fatigue in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy: A quasi-experimental study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Fatigue is the most common symptom in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Benson’s relaxation technique is considered effective to reduce fatigue, but its effect in combination with smartphone technology is limited.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to analyze and determine the effect of the Benson relaxation application (Bens app) on fatigue in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A quasi-experimental design with a pretest-posttest comparison group was used. Fifty-six patients were included using consecutive sampling technique, of which 28 were assigned to the experimental group (received Benson relaxation technique using Bens app) and comparison group (obtained Benson relaxation technique using booklet). The Benson relaxation was done two times per day for seven days, and the Brief Fatigue Inventory questionnaire was used to measure the patients’ fatigue levels. Data were analyzed using paired and independent <em>t</em>-tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The experimental group (<em>p</em> = 0.001) and the comparison group (<em>p</em> = 0.015) showed a significant reduction in fatigue after receiving the Benson relaxation for seven days. However, there was a statistically significant difference in fatigue between the experiment and comparison groups after the intervention (<em>t</em><sub>55</sub> = 2.481, <em>p </em>= 0.016).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Benson relaxation could reduce fatigue in patients with breast cancer using the Bens app and booklet. However, the Bens app is considered more effective than a booklet. Therefore, the Bens app can be viewed as an alternative to help patients perform Benson relaxation and integrated into the nurse palliative care program for patients with cancer.</p> Hendra Dwi Cahyono Dewi Irawaty Muhamad Adam Copyright (c) 2022 Hendra Dwi Cahyono, Dewi Irawaty, Muhamad Adam 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 304 310 10.33546/bnj.1843 Factors associated with the choice of delivery place: A cross-sectional study in rural areas of Indonesia <div> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Developing countries, including Indonesia, commonly face maternal mortality as a public health concern, which needs special attention. Using maternal delivery services in health facilities may reduce maternal mortality. However, little is known about the general use of delivery services in health facilities in rural areas, Indonesia.</p> </div> <div> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to analyze determinants in choosing delivery places in rural areas of Indonesia.</p> </div> <div> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional quantitative design with secondary data from the 2014 Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) was used in this study. There were 2,389 mothers aged 15-49 years in rural areas were included. Data were analyzed using a logistic regression test.</p> </div> <div> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It was found that 67% of mothers gave birth in health facilities. Tertiary and secondary education levels, residence in Java and Bali regions, economic status, insurance ownership, and job status were significantly related to the choice of delivery place in health facilities. Tertiary education was the most dominant factor correlated with the use of delivery services in health facilities (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.001; <em>PR</em> = 4.55; <em>95% CI =</em> 3.751-5.542).</p> </div> <div><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Education is the key factor associated with the choice of delivery place. Therefore, it is suggested that the government and healthcare workers, especially nurses and midwives, improve mothers’ education and provide strategies to increase knowledge in choosing delivery services to enhance their health outcomes.</div> Haerawati Idris Copyright (c) 2022 Haerawati Idris 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 311 315 10.33546/bnj.2095 Examining the impact of upright and recumbent positions on labor outcomes in Saudi Arabia: A quasi-experiment <p><strong>Background: </strong>Helping the woman to adopt a comfortable position during childbirth significantly affects labor changes and pain management. However, there is a lack of consensus on the impacts of different childbirth positions on labor outcomes. In addition, a scarce of studies have assessed the effects of the upright and recumbent positions on delivery outcomes, especially in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to examine and compare the influence of upright and recumbent childbirth positions on birth outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The setting was the childbirth unit at East Jeddah Hospital from November 2020 to March 2021. The research design was quasi-experimental, including 300 women in labor under 18-45 years. The sample includes two equal groups of 150 women: upright (experiment) and recumbent (comparison) position groups. Three tools were used to collect data: a structured interviewing questionnaire, the modified WHO partograph, and the Wong-Baker FACES® pain rating scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, independent <em>t</em>-test, and paired<em> t</em>-test were used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Women in the recumbent position spent a longer duration in the first, second, and third stages of childbirth and had higher pain scores and less satisfaction with the assumed position than women in the upright position, with a highly significant difference (<em>p</em> &lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Laboring women in upright positions experienced faster progress of labor, shorter duration of childbirth, less pain, and higher satisfaction than those assumed recumbent positions. This study serves as an input for midwives and nurses to enable them to offer appropriate advice to improve intrapartum care. In addition, educational programs targeting pregnant women about the positive impacts of upright position on women’s birth experience are encouraged.</p> Zahra Al Aryani Abeer Orabi Howieda Fouly Copyright (c) 2022 Zahra Al Aryani, Abeer Orabi, Howieda Fouly 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 316 324 10.33546/bnj.2114 Nurse managers’ views regarding patients’ long waiting time at community health centers in Gauteng Province, South Africa <p><strong>Background:</strong> Patients’ long waiting time still exceeds the set target of 120 minutes. As a result, the volume of complaints remains a concern that points to systems inefficiencies. Minimal attention has been given to the experiences of nurse managers regarding patients’ long waiting time</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To explore and describe the experiences of nurse managers regarding patients’ long waiting time at Community Health Centers (CHCs) in Gauteng Province, South Africa</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The research applied qualitative exploratory descriptive and contextual design. Non-probability purposive sampling techniques were used to select eight nurse managers. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted and captured with an audio tape. Tesch’s 8-steps of data analysis were followed to analyze the data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Three themes and seven categories emerged from the study: (1) The adverse effects of patients’ long waiting time (early birds to evade long queues, increased patients’ complaints and compromised quality care), (2) Factors that contribute to patients’ long waiting time (records and patient administration system deficiencies, poor time management, patients’ lack of adherence to booking system), (3) Measures to mitigate patients’ long waiting time (embracing decongestion systems to mitigate patients’ overflow at CHC).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study recommends the optimal implementation of an appointment system to avert long waiting times. Collaboration between CHCs’ management and clinic committees is encouraged to provide the best solutions to the reduction of patients’ long waiting times. In addition, time management is one area that needs to be improved. A digital record management system can assist in better-sought problems related to filling. Studies are encouraged on a model to enhance collaboration in reduction of patients’ long waiting time.</p> Solly Ratsietsi Makua Sisinyana Khunou Copyright (c) 2022 Solly Ratsietsi Makua, Sisinyana Hannah Khunou 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 325 332 10.33546/bnj.2096 Uncovering adaptive mechanisms and resilience among older adults: A qualitative study on the mental health impacts of temperature variations <p><strong>Background: </strong>Variable environmental temperature changes have affected different population groups; however, limited empirical studies in nursing have focused on older adults. One of the most pressing issues of today is climate change, where nurses should explore and advance their roles.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to explore and describe the experience of older adults with temperature variations as a consequence of climate change and its impact on mental health.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Descriptive phenomenological approach was used in this study. Purposeful sampling was used in selecting key informants, while individual telephone interviews and videoconferencing platforms using a semi-structured interview guide were used as the data gathering method to gather key informants’ accounts of their experiences. Prior to data collection, authors bracket their preconceived beliefs and values regarding the phenomenon at hand. Colaizzi’s seven-step method of data analysis combined with the use of qualitative data analysis software was used to develop the themes and sub-themes.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Eleven key informants aged 60-77 participated in this study. Sixty significant statements on temperature variations and mental health were extracted, while forty-one meanings were formulated from the significant statements. Important meanings were grouped into a cluster of themes which built the three major themes and seven sub-themes. The major themes are Theme 1: Active recollection and recognition of their experience; Theme 2: Symptoms of physical, social, mental, and cognitive aspects transformation; and Theme 3: Establishing adaptive mechanisms. The themes reflect a mental or cognitive process of recognizing and understanding their experiences, experiencing their impacts, developing adaptive mechanisms, and showing characteristics of resilience. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The themes and sub-themes developed in this study showed that despite their vulnerability, older adults were able to implement adaptive mechanisms and showed signs of resiliency. Temperature variations brought limitations or adjustments to the physical, social, mental, and cognitive aspects of the key informants. Further studies should be conducted in other population groups and various geographical locations to identify sources of adaptive mechanisms and resilience to temperature variations and climate change among older adults. The findings should be used in developing health programs and crafting policies.</p> Jerick B. Tabudlo Gerardo F. Joven Marjorie F. Joven Copyright (c) 2022 Jerick B. Tabudlo, Gerardo F. Joven, Marjorie F. Joven 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 333 339 10.33546/bnj.2148 Factors influencing nursing students’ continued success in a baccalaureate nursing program in Indonesia <p><strong>Background</strong>: Holistic admission processes are needed to promote diversity in nursing students. Previous research had identified different variables related to the average grade point at the end of the first semester. There is a need to examine if those variables are associated with ongoing student success.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The purpose of this study was to analyze experience, attributes, and academic variables for an association with nursing student success. Student success was defined as being an active student at the end of the first year and at the end of the second year of a baccalaureate nursing program in Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine what relationship, if any, the variables had with student success, measured at the end of the first and second academic years. The data of 341 nursing students enrolled in August 2018 was analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The variables accounted for 40.3% of the variance at the end of the first year and 24.3% of the variance at the end of the second year. There was a significant (<em>p </em>&lt; .05) relationship between being enrolled at the end of the first year and 1) academic variables of first semester grade point average and the admission score of Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices, and 2) attribute variables of reason for entering nursing and brief calling presence scale. A significant relationship was found between being enrolled at the end of the second year and the attribute variable of grit score. No variables had a strong correlation with other variables.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Holistic admission processes and promoting student success can create the future of the nursing workforce. Improving the diversity in admitted nursing students will enhance the diversity in the nursing workforce. To promote the success of all students, a variety of support interventions will need to be developed. As students’ calling and grit may play a role in student success, a better understanding is needed. In addition, more research is needed to explore how developing calling and grit throughout the nursing program can impact student success.</p> Christine L. Sommers Grace Solely Houghty Rijanto Purbojo Innocentius Bernarto Copyright (c) 2022 Christine L. Sommers, Grace Solely Houghty, Rijanto Purbojo, Innocentius Bernarto 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 340 348 10.33546/bnj.2160 Factors related to health-related quality of life in patients with acute coronary syndrome in West Java, Indonesia: A correlational study <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background:</strong> Although acute coronary syndrome impacts patients’ health-related quality of life, a dearth of studies explore this issue in Indonesia. Thus, understanding factors associated with health-related quality of life among patients with acute coronary syndrome is a necessity.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to examine the relationships between age, pain, dyspnea, functional status, self-efficacy, social support, and health-related quality of life in patients with acute coronary syndrome in West Java, Indonesia.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Methods</strong>: This study employed a descriptive correlational study involving 186 patients with acute coronary syndrome purposively selected in the outpatient clinics of the top referral public hospital. Data were collected in 2020 using validated instruments: Rose Questionnaire for Angina (RQA), Rose Dyspnea Scale (RDS), Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE), ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI), and MacNew Health-Related Quality of Life. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman-rank correlation.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Results: </strong>Overall, the health-related quality of life in patients with acute coronary syndrome was high (Mean = 4.97, SD = 0.92), including in its subscales: emotional (Mean = 4.94, SD = 0.88), physical (Mean = 5.07, SD = 1.12), and social (Mean = 5.05, SD = 1.55) subscales. Significant factors related to health-related quality of life were pain (<em>r</em> = 0.296, <em>p</em> &lt;0.001), functional status (<em>r</em> = 0.601, <em>p</em> &lt;0.001), dyspnea (<em>r</em> = -0.438, <em>p</em>&lt;0.001), and self-efficacy (<em>r</em> = 0.299, <em>p</em> &lt;0.001). Meanwhile, age and social support had no significant relationships with health-related quality of life (<em>p</em> = 0.270, <em>p</em> = 0.059). Interestingly, social support was significantly correlated with the emotional subscale of health-related quality of life (<em>r</em> = 0.156, <em>p</em> = 0.034).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Functional status, pain, and self-efficacy were positively correlated with health-related quality of life, while dyspnea had a negative association. This finding serves as basic information for nurses and other healthcare professionals to consider the related factors identified in this study to improve nursing interventions in order to increase health-related quality of life among patients with acute coronary syndrome.</p> Haerul Imam Chanokporn Jitpanya Copyright (c) 2022 Haerul Imam, Chanokporn Jitpanya 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 349 356 10.33546/bnj.1247 Oral feeding skills in premature infants: A concept analysis <p><strong>Background: </strong>The delay in developing oral feeding skills becomes a problem experienced by premature infants. One of the reasons for the delay may be related to inconsistent definitions of oral feeding skills, which can cause discrepancies in the provision of nursing care.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to clarify the concept of oral feeding skills in premature infants.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The Walker and Avant concept analysis method was used. A literature search was also conducted from five databases: CINAHL, PubMed, ProQuest, EMBASE, and Google Scholar, to find articles between January 2020 and December 2022.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The literature search obtained 20 articles on oral feeding skills from various disciplines. Five attributes were developed from the concept analysis, including (1) coordination ability to suck, swallow, and breathe, (2) the ability to regulate oral-motor functions, (3) the ability to regulate sensory functions, (4) the ability to maintain the stability of physiology function, and (5) the ability to regulate feeding behavior. Antecedents to oral feeding skills include immaturity of the nervous system, gestational age, feeding intolerance, increased length of stay and cost of care, increased rehospitalization, stress on parents, and increased morbidity and mortality. Consequences include optimization of growth and development, reduction of length of stay and cost of hospitalization, increased bonding attachment, increased self-efficacy of parents in caring for premature infants, and improvement of the quality of life of premature infants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The concept analysis provides five comprehensive attributes and their antecedents and consequences. However, this concept can be used to provide nursing care to premature infants, assess the criteria for discharge, and optimize nutrition for the growth and development of premature infants.</p> Dyah Dwi Astuti Yeni Rustina Dessie Wanda Copyright (c) 2022 Dyah Dwi Astuti, Yeni Rustina, Dessie Wanda 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 280 286 10.33546/bnj.2107 Translation, adaptation, and validation of the Filipino version of the Caring Behaviors Inventory <p><strong>Background:</strong> The way patients perceive nurses’ caring behaviors can potentially impact patient outcomes and satisfaction. Studies have revealed incongruence between nurses’ and patients’ perceptions with regard to which behaviors are considered caring.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to conduct a cross-cultural validation and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Caring Behaviors Inventory (CBI-16), a self-report questionnaire, from English to Filipino.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional design involving forward and back-translation with bilingual translators, expert validation, and a survey in a sample of patients and nurses was used. The psychometric evaluation used a sample of 142 staff nurses and 180 hospitalized patients. Exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency reliability, and inferential statistics were used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The Filipino version of the CBI-16 (CBI-16-FIL) had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.95) and a unidimensional factor structure (accounted for 85% of total variance). The CBI-16-FIL was found to be a valid, reliable, and unidimensional tool to measure the perceptions of nurse caring behaviors in the Philippines.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The CBI-16-FIL can be used to measure perceptions of nurse caring behaviors. There is a need for further studies involving other cultures, dyadic samples of nurses and patients, and larger sample sizes.</p> Reiner Lorenzo Tamayo Dan Louie Renz Tating Ericka Louise Gilo Hannah Kristine Mugol Karen Grace Laureta Copyright (c) 2022 Reiner Lorenzo Tamayo, Dan Louie Renz Tating, Ericka Louise Gilo, Hannah Kristine Mugol, Karen Grace Laureta 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 357 364 10.33546/bnj.2132 Developing, validating, and pre-testing of a diabetic care self-management mobile health application: A technology-based intervention for patients with diabetes in Malaysia <p><strong>Background</strong>: Technology-based intervention showed a promising approach to health promotion strategies. There had been limited knowledge of the existing program for technology-based intervention in promoting foot care and dietary behavior modification. Thus, a mobile app was developed as an alternative strategy for promoting foot care and dietary behavior modification.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This paper aims to elaborate on the process of developing, validating, and examining the Diabetic Care Self-Management Mobile Health Application (Diabetic Care).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: There are two phases conducted. The first phase is the process of developing and validating Diabetic Care. Intervention Mapping (IM) Framework was used to guide the process of developing Diabetic Care, while in assessing validity, guidance from Kassam-Adams et al. was used. A team of experts was appointed to validate the mobile app developed. Next, the usability of Diabetic Care was conducted among ten conveniently chosen patients with diabetes in a governmental primary care clinic.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The process of developing Diabetic Care was clearly explained. The Diabetic Care app showed a good I-CVI score (1.00) and general CVI score (1.00) after the expert team assessed. During the trial, two drawbacks were identified and explored to find solutions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The Diabetic Care app is proven appropriate to be employed in the study. Even though there were two drawbacks encountered, however, possible solutions were able to be explored in addressing the issues. Further research should be conducted to examine the effectiveness of this mobile app in modifying foot care behavior and dietary behavior. Hence, it will assist in the translation of advanced technology in nursing care.</p> Mohd Khairul Zul Hasymi Firdaus Piyanuch Jittanoon Umaporn Boonyasopun Copyright (c) 2022 Mohd Khairul Zul Hasymi Firdaus, Piyanuch Jittanoon, Umaporn Boonyasopun 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 8 4 365 371 10.33546/bnj.2127