Guideline for Quantitative Studies

Updated 20 August 2019

Articles submitted to the Belitung Nursing Journal should not exceed 7000 words for the main text, including abstract, tables and references.

 

Abstract

Write a structured abstract, including 5 headings: Background, Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusion.

Abstract is not more than 350 words and add key words (3-5 words). Wording should be concise and present only the essential elements. 'Telegraphic' statements without verbs are acceptable. Abbreviations are not allowed.

 

Main text

This is your main text with no authors' detail. All illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end of the manuscript.

 

INTRODUCTION

  • Clearly identify the research problem, rationale, context, international relevance of topic
  • Provide the gap to show the significant of your study
  • Present the scientific, conceptual or theoretical framework that guided the study, identifying and providing an overview of the conceptual model and/or theory where appropriate. 
  • Explain connections between study variables and support those connections with relevant theoretical and empirical literature.
  • Explain the connections between the scientific hypothesis, conceptual model or theory and the study variables. 
  • Objective(s): State the objectives of the study as a narrative study purpose or as research questions or hypotheses to be tested at the end of introduction. For example, ‘The aim of the study was to…’

 

METHODS

Methods should be structured, including: 

Study design

Identify the specific research design used, for example correlational, experimental, quasi-experimental, cross-sectional, and longitudinal study.

 

Sample/Participants

  • Identify the sampling strategy/strategies used: random; stratified; convenience; purposive (state what purpose).
  • Identify the inclusion and exclusion criteria. For example, ‘The inclusion criteria were…’, ‘The exclusion criteria were…’ Explain how participants were recruited.
  • Identify the size of the sample (and the population, if appropriate). Report the sample size calculation, or power analysis, if appropriate; if not appropriate or not undertaken, provide another type of justification for the sample size.

 

Instrument

  • Clearly state the information whether you develop, adopt, adapt or modify the instrument
  • Clearly state the validity and reliability of the instrument
  • Clearly state the name of instrument including its citation and reference
  • Explain briefly the type of instrument, its scale and how to use it
  • If translation has been required from the original language, please explain the procedures used to maintain validity of translated tools

 

Intervention (this heading is only for experimental studies)

  • Explain briefly the process of intervention, setting, and those who did intervention
  • If you have control group, please explain what kind of intervention you do to them


Data collection

  • Describe when and where the data were collected
  • Describe who collect the data
  • Any research assistants/enumerators/local coordinators? 


Data analysis

Describe the techniques used to analyse the data, including computer software used, if appropriate. For example, ‘SPSS version X was used to analyse the data. Analysis of variance techniques were used to test the hypotheses.’ 

 

Ethical consideration

  • Identify any particular ethical issues that were attached to this research. Provide a statement of ethics committee approval. Do not name the university or other institution from which ethics committee approval was obtained; state only that ethics committee approval was obtained from a university and/or whatever other organisation is relevant.
  • Explain any other approvals obtained, for example, local site arrangements to meet research governance requirements. If, according to local regulations, no formal ethical scrutiny was required or undertaken, please state this.
  • The complete name of the institution and approval number should be stated in the title page.

 

RESULTS

  • Start with a description of characteristics of sample. For example: ‘The study participants ranged in age from X to Y years…’ Always include age (range and mean) and gender distribution.
  • Present results explicitly for each study aim or research question or hypothesis. Indicate whether each hypothesis was supported or declined.
  • Use subheadings as appropriate.
  • Use figures and tables as needed, but try to limit to no more than three or four tables and one or two figures. Each figure/table should be referred to in the text, but do not repeat in the text material which is set out in tables. Rather, identify key points in text, and refer readers to tables for detail.
  • If the table shows the statistic results, please state the name of statistical analysis you use.

 

DISCUSSION

  • Discussion must be in relation to the conceptual or theoretical framework and existing literature. Do previous research findings match or differ from yours?
  • Draw conclusions about what new knowledge has emerged from the study. For example, this new knowledge could contribute to new conceptualisations or question existing ones; it could lead to the development of tentative/substantive theories (or even hypotheses), it could advance/question existing theories or provide methodological insights, or it could provide data that could lead to improvements in practice. What readers want to know is what your work adds to this topic.
  • End with study limitations including but not confined to sample representativeness and/or sample size and generalisability/external validity of the results.

 

CONCLUSION

  • Provide real conclusions, not just a summary/repetition of the findings.
  • Draw conclusions about the adequacy of the theory in relation to the data. Indicate whether the data supported or refuted the theory. Indicate whether the conceptual model was a useful and adequate guide for the study.
  • Identify implications/recommendations for practice/research/education/management as appropriate, and consistent with the limitations.

 

REFERENCES

Use APA (American Psychological Association) 6th Edition with DOI number format for citation and references.