Vol. 2 No. 2 (2023): Promoting Integrative Healthcare: Education, Policy, and Management

Original Research Article

Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on household income generation and food consumption in Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria: A comparative study of formal and informal sector workers

Chima Paul
Department of Public Administration, University of Abuja, Nigeria
Yusuf Lawal
Department of Public Administration, University of Abuja, Nigeria
Joseph Malachy
Department of Public Administration, University of Abuja, Nigeria


COVID 19, lockdown, policy measures, Abuja, Nigeria, informal sectors

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Accepted for publication: 2023-10-19
Peer reviewed: Yes

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Background: At the beginning of 2020, Nigeria grappled with a severe outbreak of the global COVID-19 pandemic. This deadly disease significantly impacted various aspects of the country’s economy, leading to socio-economic challenges primarily attributed to daily increases in reported cases and the subsequent enforcement of lockdown measures. Gwagwalada Area Council in Abuja, Nigeria, was not exempt from the devastating consequences of this epidemic, particularly concerning income generation and food access for its residents. Although several studies have examined the impact of COVID-19 on Nigerian workers, little information exists regarding the differing effects on formal and informal sector workers.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the disparities in the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic’s lockdown on household income generation and food consumption among formal and informal sector workers in Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria.

Methods: A descriptive survey design was employed for this study. Three hundred and thirty-two completed questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, which included simple percentages and means and independent sample t-tests.

Results: A significant difference was revealed in the impact of the lockdown between formal and informal sector workers (p <0.001). The lockdown impacted substantially on the informal sector workers more than the formal sector counterparts.

Conclusion: The study found that informal sector workers suffered a greater negative impact from the COVID-19 lockdown in Gwagwalada compared to formal sector workers. Therefore, it is recommended that the government provide substantial loans and grants with low or no interest rates to support informal sector business owners, mitigating the effects of the COVID lockdown and creating job opportunities for those affected by the government’s lockdown measures. Additionally, introducing price control mechanisms to ensure affordable food prices is essential, even after the conclusion of the pandemic.

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Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors assert that there are no conflicts of interest pertaining to the research, authorship, and publication of this paper.


The authors would like to extend their gratitude to all participants for their invaluable cooperation in facilitating this study.

Authors’ Contributions

Joseph Malachy was responsible for document searching, outline creation, draft article composition, and final article completion. The text underwent a quality review and was subsequently reviewed and corrected by Chima Paul and Yusuf Lawal. Dr. Chima Paul and Dr. Yusuf Lawal also carried out document searches and performed various data-related tasks, such as data collection, cleaning, entry, and analysis. All authors approved the final version of the article to be published.

Data Availability Statement

All datasets generated and analyzed during the study process are not made public but available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Declaration of the Use of AI in Scientific Writing

Nothing to declare.


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