Psychometric evaluation of the Malay version of the Individual Community-Related Empowerment scale among older adults in Malaysia

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ICRE-m scale


factor analysis

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Zaidun, Z., Sutan, R., & Aizuddin, A. N. (2023). Psychometric evaluation of the Malay version of the Individual Community-Related Empowerment scale among older adults in Malaysia. Belitung Nursing Journal, 9(3), 287–292.
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Accepted for publication: 2023-06-10
Peer reviewed: Yes

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Background: Malaysia is projected to become an aged country by 2030, with the older age group comprising 10 percent of the total population. To address this demographic shift, comprehensive plans and initiatives are being implemented at various levels, ranging from the government to local communities. A crucial aspect of these efforts is community empowerment, which requires a reliable and validated tool for measurement.

Objective: This study aimed to validate the Individual Community Related Empowerment (ICRE) scale in alignment with the national language of Malaysia.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from May to December 2019. Back-to-back translation from the English to Malay version of the ICRE scale was done. A total of 328 older persons aged 60 years old and above who attended clinics and understood Malay had been randomly selected. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), particularly Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation and Kaiser Normalization, was performed in this study using IBM SPSS version 27 Amos graphic.

Results: The findings revealed that the Malay version of the Individual Community Related Empowerment (ICRE-m) scale consists of five components: self-efficacy, intention, participation, motivation, and critical awareness, which collectively accounted for 92.3% of total variance. All five components demonstrated Cronbach’s alpha values greater than 0.7, indicating the reliability of the selected items for field studies.

Conclusion: The ICRE-m scale is acceptable for field studies and valid for measuring individual-related community empowerment. Nurses and other healthcare professionals can employ this scale specifically within the Malay-speaking population, particularly in the Asian region. Future studies on community empowerment among older individuals can utilize this tool to assess community readiness for participating in community health interventions.

Supporting Agencies

The authors declared no grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The Medical Faculty of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia support the cost for the publication of this article.


Copyright (c) 2023 Zuraidah Zaidun, Rosnah Sutan, Azimatun Noor Aizuddin

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors declared no conflict of interest in this study.


All authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by the Elderly Health Clinic Club for participating in the study. We thank the Director General of Health Malaysia for permission to conduct and publish this article.

Authors’ Contributions

ZZ did the data collection herself using the validated questionnaire. ZZ, RS, and AZA conceived the scope of the review to meet the study objectives. Literature search, data collection, analysis, and interpretation were conducted by ZZ and verified by RS. ZZ drafted the first iteration of the manuscript. All authors contributed substantially to the critical review, editing, and revision of the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

Data Availability

The dataset generated for the analysis of this manuscript is available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. The ICRE-m can be accessed in the supplementary file.

Declaration of Use of AI in Scientific Writing

Nothing to declare.


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