Uncovering the underlying aspects of successful COVID-19 prevention and control in Thailand through factor analysis: Lessons we have not yet learned from village health volunteers


village health volunteers
community health
successful factors
factor analysis

How to Cite

Nawsuwan, K., Oupra, R., Singweratham, N., & Thepaksorn, P. (2023). Uncovering the underlying aspects of successful COVID-19 prevention and control in Thailand through factor analysis: Lessons we have not yet learned from village health volunteers. Belitung Nursing Journal, 9(5), 505–511. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.2735
Google Scholar

Link to Google Scholar

Funder - Crossref Registry

Accepted for publication: 2023-10-06
Peer reviewed: Yes

Related articles in

Search Relations - Article by Author(s)

Share this article on:


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a global challenge, leading different nations to adopt diverse strategies for prevention and control. In Thailand, Village Health Volunteers (VHVs) have played a pivotal role in the fight against the virus. As the pandemic unfolded, the critical role of VHVs became apparent, prompting a closer examination of their practices and the underlying factors contributing to their effectiveness.

Objective: This study aimed to uncover the underlying factors and indicators contributing to the successful prevention and control of COVID-19 by VHVs in Thailand.

Methods: The sample group included 10,400 VHVs nationwide. Data were collected from October 2020 to February 2021 using five-point Likert rating scale online questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Exploratory Factor Analysis technique, with Principal Component Analysis and the orthogonal Varimax method.

Results: The study revealed nine effective factors and 52 indicators contributing to the prevention and control of COVID-19 in Thailand. The identified factors are as follows: 1) Personal precautions, 2) Proactive disease control strategy, 3) Awareness of COVID-19 severity, 4) Pride and job motivation, 5) Adequate medical equipment and support, 6) Communication, planning, and monitoring processes, 7) Self-care for health, 8) Data collection, record maintenance, and report submission, and 9) Proper hand washing.

Conclusion: This research emphasizes the importance of a holistic approach to community-based health interventions. It highlights the crucial role of VHVs in disseminating information, ensuring preparedness, and fostering a sense of responsibility among community members. This strategic approach will effectively contribute to ongoing efforts to successfully prevent and control the spread of COVID-19 and potential future outbreaks.


Supporting Agencies

This study was funded by the National Research Council of Thailand


Copyright (c) 2023 Kittiporn Nawsuwan, Roshinee Oupra, Noppcha Singweratham, Phayong Thepaksorn

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Article Metrics

Total views 218 [Abstract: 88 | PDF: 129 | XML: 1 ]


Download data is not yet available.

PlumX Metrics

Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors had no conflict of interest to declare.


The authors would like to express their gratitude to the National Research Council of Thailand and extend their sincere appreciation to all the participants who participated in the study.

Authors’ Contributions

All authors equally contributed to the study, were accountable for each step, and critically reviewed and approved the final version of the article.

Data Availability

The datasets generated during and analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due to privacy and ethical concerns but are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Declaration of Use of AI in Scientific Writing

Nothing to declare.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Wuhan, China: Interim guidance for healthcare professionals. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/84450

Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 10(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.7275/jyj1-4868

Deng, S.-Q., & Peng, H.-J. (2020). Characteristics of and public health responses to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in China. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(2), 575. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020575

Department of Disease Control - Ministry of Public Health Thailand. (2018). Integrated community health care and impact of haze on communities' health in Northern Thailand [in Thai]. Nonthaburi: Ministry of Public Health Thailand.

Department of Health Service Support Ministry of Public Health. (2019). Manual for officials to elevate village health volunteers to become community health workers [in Thai]. Nonthaburi: Ministry of Public Health, Thailand.

Department of Health Service Support Ministry of Public Health. (2020). Organization of health volunteers and public sector for local quarantine and home quarantine [in Thai]. https://ddc.moph.go.th/viralpneumonia/file/g_km/km08_120363.pdf

Güner, H. R., Hasanoğlu, İ., & Aktaş, F. (2020). COVID-19: Prevention and control measures in community. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50(9), 571-577. https://doi.org/10.3906/sag-2004-146

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2019). Multivariate data analysis (8th ed.). Hampshire, United Kingdom: Cengage Learning.

Hidayati, N., Hadi, F., Maghfiroh, I. L., Andarini, E., Setiawan, H., & Sandi, Y. D. L. (2022). Nursing diagnoses in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Indonesia. Belitung Nursing Journal, 8(1), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1828

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., & Gu, X. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497-506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5

Juthamanee, S. (2020). ‘Wash your hand!’: The old message from florence nightingale to battle covid-19. Belitung Nursing Journal, 6(2), 62. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1097

Kuhakan, J., & Wongcha-um, P. (2020). Thailand's one million health volunteers hailed as coronavirus heroes. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-thailand-volunteer-idUSKBN23B044

Li, Q., Guan, X., Wu, P., Wang, X., Zhou, L., Tong, Y., Ren, R., Leung, K. S. M., Lau, E. H. Y., & Wong, J. Y. (2020). Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(13), 1199-1207. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316

Meyerowitz, E. A., Richterman, A., Gandhi, R. T., & Sax, P. E. (2021). Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: A review of viral, host, and environmental factors. Annals of Internal Medicine, 174(1), 69-79. https://doi.org/10.7326/M20-5008

Ministry of Public Health. (2020). Public health guidelines for the management of the outbreak of Covid-19 In the terms issued under Article 9 of the Emergency Decree in an Emergency Situation 2005 (Version 1) [in Thai]. Nonthaburi: Ministry of Public Health, Thailand.

Na Pathalung, P., & Thepaksorn, P. (2017). Abilities of village health volunteers in determining drug related problems for diabetes and hypertension patients. International Journal of Public Health Science, 6(4), 283-287.

Narkvichien, M. (2020). Thailand's 1 million village health volunteers - “unsung heroes” - are helping guard communities nationwide from COVID-19. https://www.who.int/thailand/news/feature-stories/detail/thailands-1-million-village-health-volunteers-unsung-heroes-are-helping-guard-communities-nationwide-from-covid-19

Neuman, W. L. (2014). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (7th ed.). United Kingdom: Pearson Education.

Osborne, J. W. (2014). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis. Scotts Valley, CA: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Parhizkar Roudsari, P., Alavi-Moghadam, S., Payab, M., Sayahpour, F. A., Aghayan, H. R., Goodarzi, P., Mohamadi-Jahani, F., Larijani, B., & Arjmand, B. (2020). Auxiliary role of mesenchymal stem cells as regenerative medicine soldiers to attenuate inflammatory processes of severe acute respiratory infections caused by COVID-19. Cell and Tissue Banking, 21, 405-425. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10561-020-09842-3

Primary Health Care Division - Ministry of Public Health. (2019). Health volunteers. https://www.thaiphc.net/new2020/content/1

Rosidin, U., Rahayuwati, L., Yamin, A., Shalahuddin, I., & Sumarni, N. (2022). Community leaders support in implementing healthy behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative case study. Malaysian Journal of Medicine & Health Sciences, 18(Supp3), 147-151.

Singweratham, N., Nawsuwan, K., Suriya, N., Oupra, R., & Lillahkul, N. (2023). Factors perceived by village health volunteers to implement the strategies of the COVID‐19 Control Centre in Thailand. Health Promotion Journal of Australia. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpja.798

Sumriddetchkajorn, K., Shimazaki, K., Ono, T., Kusaba, T., Sato, K., & Kobayashi, N. (2019). Universal health coverage and primary care, Thailand. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 97(6), 415-422. https://doi.org/10.2471%2FBLT.18.223693

Tejativaddhana, P., Suriyawongpaisal, W., Kasemsup, V., & Suksaroj, T. (2020). The roles of village health volunteers: COVID-19 prevention and control in Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management, 15(3), 18-22. https://doi.org/10.24083/apjhm.v15i3.477

Thailand Ministry of Public Health, & World Health Organization Thailand. (2020). Joint intra-action review of the public health response to COVID-19 in Thailand. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/joint-intra-action-review-of-the-public-health-response-to-covid-19-in-thailand

Tsai, P.-H., Lai, W.-Y., Lin, Y.-Y., Luo, Y.-H., Lin, Y.-T., Chen, H.-K., Chen, Y.-M., Lai, Y.-C., Kuo, L.-C., & Chen, S.-D. (2021). Clinical manifestation and disease progression in COVID-19 infection. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 84(1), 3-8. https://doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000463

UNICEF. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): What parents should know. https://www.unicef.org/easterncaribbean/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-what-parents-should-know

Winarti, E., Wahyuni, C. U., Rias, Y. A., Mirasa, Y. A., Sidabutar, S., & Wardhani, D. L. (2021). Citizens’ health practices during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia: Applying the health belief model. Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(4), 277-284. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1560

World Health Organization. (2020). Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) technical guidance. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance

Readers are able to give us their valuable feedbacks here. The comments will be reviewed by the editors and then published here. Important Note: The "Comments" related to the Galley Proof PDF must NOT be submitted via this form. Authors should submit their comments on their galley proofs only via system