Background: Nurses as primary healthcare providers demonstrate quality nursing care through competencies with healthcare technologies, while nurse managers assume the primacy of managing quality healthcare in their respective care settings. However, little is known about perceptions of the influence of care technologies on their nursing practice.
Objective: This study aimed to determine managers’ and staff nurses’ perceptions regarding the Technological Competency as Caring in Nursing (TCCN) theory in general hospitals in Japan.
Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional survey design, with 421 participants selected using a stratified sampling method. Technological Competency as Caring in Nursing Instrument–Revised (TCCNI-R) was used for online data collection using Survey Monkey©. Data were analyzed using Welch’s t-test and ANOVA.
Results: Nurses with years of experience within the range of 20 to less than 30 years showed the highest TCCNI-R scores among the two groups. Nurses who had received education on caring in nursing showed significant differences for Factor 2 (Technological Competency as Caring), that of expressing Technological Competency as Caring. Three other factors showed no significant difference, namely in Factor 1 (Nursing Expression as Caring), Factor 3 (Technology and Caring), and Factor 4 (Technological Knowing). However, the average scores of these factors were high, which reflect high professional ethics and occupational discipline and increased awareness of caring in nursing. It was also found that the nurse managers were more aware of the TCCN than were the staff nurses. The nurse managers were also more aware of providing care using technology, recognizing the need-to-know patient needs through technology and providing care to the ever-changing patient’s condition.
Conclusion: The study discovered that continuing education is needed regarding the practice of nursing based on theory, enabling appropriate and accurate understanding of practicing knowing persons as caring in nursing.
Copyright (c) 2021 Youko Nakano, Tomoya Yokotani, Feni Betriana, Chihiro Kawai, Hirokazu Ito, Yuko Yasuhara, Tetsuya Tanioka, Rozzano Locsin, Misao Miyagawa
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Article MetricsAbstract views: 849 | PDF views: 541
Aupia, A., Lee, T.-T., Liu, C.-Y., Wu, S.-F. V., & Mills, M. E. (2018). Caring behavior perceived by nurses, patients and nursing students in Indonesia. Journal of Professional Nursing, 34(4), 314-319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2017.11.013
Biswas, S. R. (2016). Technological competency as caring in nursing as perceived by ICU nurses in Bangladesh and its related factors. Songklanagarind Journal of Nursing, 36(1), 1-20.
Boykin, A., Schoenhofer, S. O., & Schoenhofer, S. O. B. (2001). Nursing as caring: A model for transforming practice. Canada: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the social sciences (2nd ed.). USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Croke, L. (2020). Health care technology continues to improve patient care and work efficiencies. AORN Journal, 111(3), P5. https://doi.org/10.1002/aorn.12993
Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.-G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175-191. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146
Glasgow, M. E. S., Colbert, A., Viator, J., & Cavanagh, S. (2018). The nurse‐engineer: A new role to improve nurse technology interface and patient care device innovations. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 50(6), 601-611. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12431
Gunawan, J., Aungsuroch, Y., Fisher, M. L., & McDaniel, A. M. (2020). Comparison of managerial competence of Indonesian first-line nurse managers: A two-generational analysis. Journal of Research in Nursing, 25(1), 5-19. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1744987119880237
Japanese Nursing Association. (n.d.). Establishment of “7 to 1 basic hospitalization fee” (in Japanese) Retrieved from https://www.nurse.or.jp/nursing/practice/seisaku/index.html
Jiang, L. L., Ruan, H., Xiang, X. J., & Jia, Q. (2015). Investigation and analysis of the caring attitude and behaviour of nurses in Shanghai, China. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 21(4), 426-432. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12287
Juhana, D., Manik, E., Febrinella, C., & Sidharta, I. (2015). Empirical study on patient satisfaction and patient loyalty on public hospital in Bandung, Indonesia. International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, 13(6), 4305-4326.
Kato, K., Miyagawa, M., Yasuhara, Y., Osaka, K., Kataoka, M., Ito, H., & Kongsuwan, W. (2017). Recognition and status of practicing technological competency as caring in nursing by nurses in ICU. International Journal of Nursing & Clinical Practices, 4(1), 264. https://doi.org/10.15344/2394-4978/2017/264
Lammintakanen, J., Saranto, K., & Kivinen, T. (2010). Use of electronic information systems in nursing management. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 79(5), 324-331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2010.01.015
Lechleitner, R. (2019). A study to assess home health nurses from a carative perspective. Hospital Topics, 97(1), 11-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/00185868.2018.1551735
Locsin, R. C. (2005). Technological competency as caring in nursing: A model for practice. Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International
Locsin, R. C. (2017). The coexistence of technology and caring in the theory of technological competency as caring in nursing. The Journal of Medical Investigation, 64(1.2), 160-164. https://doi.org/10.2152/jmi.64.160
Locsin, R. C. (2020). The advent of anthropomorphic intelligent machines: A boon to nursing or its nemesis? Belitung Nursing Journal, 6(5), 147-149. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1225
McSherry, R., Pearce, P., Grimwood, K., & McSherry, W. (2012). The pivotal role of nurse managers, leaders and educators in enabling excellence in nursing care. Journal of Nursing Management, 20(1), 7-19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01349.x
Morioka, N., Tomio, J., Seto, T., & Kobayashi, Y. (2017). The association between higher nurse staffing standards in the fee schedules and the geographic distribution of hospital nurses: A cross-sectional study using nationwide administrative data. BMC Nursing, 16(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-017-0219-1
Nakano, Y., Tanioka, T., Locsin, R., Miyagawa, M., Yokotani, T., Yasuhara, Y., & Catangui, E. (2019). A novel in-service nursing education optimizing theory of technological competency as caring in nursing. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 9(11), 85-91. https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v9n11p85
Parand, A., Dopson, S., Renz, A., & Vincent, C. (2014). The role of hospital managers in quality and patient safety: A systematic review. BMJ Open, 4(9), e005055. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005055
Parcells, D. A., & Locsin, R. C. (2011). Development and psychometric testing of the technological competency as caring in nursing Instrument. International Journal of Human Caring, 15(4), 8-13. https://doi.org/10.20467/1091-5710.15.4.8
Rincón-Álvarez, D. A., & Chaparro-Díaz, L. (2017). Validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the technological competency as caring in nursing instrument. Investigacion y Educacion en Enfermeria, 35(2), 154-164. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.iee.v35n1a04
Takase, M. (2013). The relationship between the levels of nurses’ competence and the length of their clinical experience: A tentative model for nursing competence development. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22(9-10), 1400-1410. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04239.x
Tanioka, T. (2018). The theory of technological competency as caring in nursing, and its instruments (TCCNI) within the Japanese nursing system: Futurist developments and utilization. In R. Locsin & W. Kongsuwan (Eds.), The evolution of the theory of Technological Competency as Caring in Nursing: A middle-range theory of nursing (pp. 145-154). Songkhla, Thailand: Chanmuang Press.
Tanioka, T., Kataoka, M., Yasuhara, Y., Miyagawa, M., & Ueta, I. (2011). The role of nurse administrators and managers in quality psychiatric care. The Journal of Medical Investigation, 58(1, 2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.2152/jmi.58.1
Vujanic, J., Prlić, N., & Lovrić, R. (2020). Nurses’ self-assessment of caring behaviors in nurse–patient interactions: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(14), 5255. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145255
Yokotani, T., Tanioka, T., Yasuhara, Y., Ito, H., Nakano, Y., Miyagawa, M., . . . Locsin, R. (2021). Assessing the psychometric properties of the Technological Competency as Caring in Nursing Instrument-Revised. International Journal for Human Caring, 25(1), 30-44. https://doi.org/10.20467/HumanCaring-D-20-00015