Prevalence of depression and its related factors among older adults in Indonesian nursing homes


nursing homes
older adults

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Gunawan, I., & Huang, X.-Y. (2022). Prevalence of depression and its related factors among older adults in Indonesian nursing homes. Belitung Nursing Journal, 8(3), 222–228.
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Accepted for publication: 2022-04-26
Peer reviewed: Yes

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Background: Depression is one of the most severe mental disorders experienced by older adults worldwide. The prevalence of depression among older adults in nursing homes is three-time higher than in the community. Therefore, knowing the incident rates of depression and its related factors would help provide appropriate intervention and prevention programs in the future.

Objectives: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and compare the difference in depression status according to the sociodemographic characteristic of the older adults in the Indonesian nursing homes.   

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used in this study, which involved 116 participants selected using convenience sampling from five different general nursing homes in Bandung City, Indonesia. The Short Form (SF) of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to evaluate depression among older adults in nursing homes. The t-test and one-way ANOVA were used for data analysis.

Results: Of the total participants, 56.9% had depression, which 7.8% with mild depression, 37.1% with moderate depression, and 12% with severe depression. In addition, there were significant differences in depression according to age, gender, marital status, educational background, ethnicity, disease history, duration of stay, and the visitor frequency among the older adults in nursing homes (p <.001).

Conclusion: A high rate of depression among older adults in Indonesian nursing homes was identified. Therefore, attention to caring for more specific needs, such as the psychosocial needs of older adults in nursing homes, is urgent.

Supporting Agencies

Universitas Muhammadiyah Tasikmalaya, Indonesia


Copyright (c) 2022 Indra Gunawan, Xuan-Yi Huang

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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Declaration of Conflicting Interest

The authors indicate no potential conflicts of interest in this study.


The authors would like to thank the nursing home administrators in Bandung City, Indonesia, for helping conduct this study. The authors also acknowledge the Universitas Muhammadiyah Tasikmalaya for funding the study.

Authors’ Contributions

All authors have made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work, and the compilation or significant revision of the work for important intellectual content in this study.

Data Availability

The datasets generated during and or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due to ethical restrictions but are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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